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Dunbar-Nelson, Alice  

Lisa Clayton Robinson

throughout most of her life. During this period, Dunbar-Nelson studied at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the University of Pennsylvania. She also edited such works as Masterpieces of Negro Eloquence ( 1914 ) and The Dunbar Speaker and Entertainer ( 1920 ). Dunbar-Nelson was involved in several relationships during this period, with both men and women, and in 1916 she married journalist Robert Nelson. Together the couple published the Wilmington Advocate newspaper from 1920 to 1922. Alice went on to write regular columns for several

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Dunbar-Nelson, Alice  

Janel Telhorst

Dunbar-Nelson, Alice ( 19 July 1875–18 September 1935 ) A version of this article originally appeared in American National Biography. Dunbar-Nelson, Alice ( 19 July 1875–18 September 1935 ), poet, journalist, and political activist , was born Alice Ruth Moore in New Orleans, Louisiana, the daughter of Joseph Moore, a seaman, and Patricia Wright, a seamstress. Dunbar-Nelson graduated from

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Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Moore  

Mary Titus

's Book of American Negro Poetry ( 1931 ). In 1921 and from 1926 to 1931 , Alice Dunbar-Nelson kept a personal diary. Edited by Gloria T. Hull , Give Us Each Day: The Diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson ( 1984 ) details Dunbar-Nelson's professional labors, travels, friendships, and recurring financial difficulties and refers to her lesbian relationships. In addition to her work as an educator, Alice Dunbar-Nelson brought her skills and energy as speaker, writer, and organizer to movements for social change. She was active

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Dunbar-Nelson, Alice  

Alice Knox Eaton

her literary work, Dunbar-Nelson focused on nonracial themes, often creating white or racially ambiguous characters, but in her work as an educator, journalist, and activist, Dunbar-Nelson placed herself firmly within African American culture, where her contributions remain vital. Further Reading Dunbar-Nelson, Alice. Give Us Each Day: The Diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson, ed. Gloria T. Hull

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Dunbar-Nelson, Alice  

Stephanie C. Palmer

Bibliography Dunbar-Nelson, Alice. The Works of Alice Dunbar-Nelson. 3 vols. Edited by Gloria T. Hull. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Gaines, Kevin K. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996. Reads Dunbar-Nelson's life in the context of black political opinion and ideas about the city.

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Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Ruth Moore  

Gloria T. Hull

Courtship and Marriage of Paul Laurence Dunbar and Alice Ruth Moore. New York: New York University Press, 2001. Hull, Gloria T. Color, Sex, and Poetry: Three Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. Hull, Gloria T. , ed. Give Us Each Day: The Diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson. New York: Norton, 1984. Hull, Gloria T. , ed. The Works of Alice Dunbar-Nelson. 3 vols. New York: Oxford University Press

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Dunbar, Paul Laurence  

Joanne M. Braxton

1895 Dunbar initiated a correspondence with Alice Ruth Moore , a fair-skinned black Creole teacher and writer originally from New Orleans. Three years later he married Alice in secret and over the objections of her friends and family. During the years of their marriage, Dunbar began to suffer from tuberculosis and the alcohol prescribed for it. The Dunbars separated permanently in 1902 but remained friends, and Alice continued to be known as “the widow of Paul Laurence Dunbar” even after her 1916 marriage to publisher Robert J. Nelson. The Dunbars had no

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Dunbar, Paul Laurence  

Lisa Clayton Robinson

while it lasted Dunbar and Alice Dunbar-Nelson were a celebrated literary couple. Dunbar's literary fame, great as it was, came to a premature end. Near the beginning of his marriage, Dunbar contracted tuberculosis and eventually developed a dependency on the alcohol prescribed as a painkiller. Within a few years, he was limited by both the disease and the alcoholism. In the last several decades of the twentieth century, scholars and readers started again to consider Dunbar's life and work.

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Dunbar, Paul Laurence  

Daniel Donaghy

Russell , J. A. Macon , Joel Chandler Harris , and Thomas Nelson Page. Dunbar's marriage fell apart in 1902. The depression he experienced after separating from his wife led him to drink heavily, which aggravated his health problems. He died of tuberculosis in his mother's house in Dayton and was mourned throughout the world as the “Poet Laureate of the Negro Race.” Herbert Woodward Martin , editor of Selected Poems: Paul Laurence Dunbar , reminds twenty-first-century readers that Dunbar was “committed to protesting the injustices and wrongs perpetrated

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Dunbar, Paul Laurence  

Charles W. Jr. Carey

Cook on another musical, In Dahomey ( 1902 ). Dunbar had married writer Alice Ruth Moore ( Alice Dunbar-Nelson ) in 1898; they had no children. In 1902 the couple separated, largely because of Dunbar's drinking, and never reconciled. After the breakup Dunbar lived in Chicago for a while, then in 1903 returned to live with his mother in Dayton, where he died of tuberculosis in 1906. Dunbar's goal was “to interpret my own people through song and story

Article

Messenger, The  

Craig Howard White

Hughes , Countee Cullen , Georgia Douglas Johnson , and Alice Dunbar-Nelson . Fashion-plate covers and society photographs dominated until 1926 , when muscular workers again appeared on the cover and the Messenger became the official organ of Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

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Hull, Gloria Thompson  

Sharon D. Johnson

University of the West Indies, and she published prolifically. Perhaps due to her mother's love of Paul Laurence Dunbar , Hull focused on the works of Dunbar's wife Alice Dunbar-Nelson , publishing Give Us Each Day: The Diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson ( 1984 ); Color, Sex and Poetry: Three Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance ( 1987 ); and The Works of Alice Dunbar-Nelson ( 1988 ). Another significant change occurred in Hull's personal life. She and her husband divorced in 1983 ,

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Burrill, Mary P.  

Frank Cha

figures, among them Angelina Weld Grimké , Georgia Douglas Johnson , and Alice Dunbar-Nelson . Burrill retired from teaching in 1944 and moved to New York City. Through her plays the pioneering Burrill sought to confront issues of great importance to African Americans. After she died she was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in Washington

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Johnson, Georgia Douglas  

Jocelyn Hazelwood Donlon

A version of this article originally appeared in Black Women in America, 2nd ed. In 1927 Alice Dunbar-Nelson described her friend Georgia Douglas Johnson as having “as many talents as she has aliases…. One is always stumbling upon another nom de plume of hers.” Johnson did sometimes publish under various pseudonyms, but the merit of Dunbar-Nelson’s comment lies in her recognition of Johnson’s many gifts as a musician, poet, playwright, columnist, short-story writer, wife, mother, and friend.

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Callis, Henry Arthur  

Ervin James

School in Wilmington, Delaware, where he married his first wife and former Cornell classmate, the poet Alice Dunbar Nelson. Callis relocated repeatedly, and divorced and remarried twice during his lifetime, while pursuing his professional aspirations. First, he attended medical school at the University of Pennsylvania between 1911 and 1913. From 1913 to 1914 he studied both biochemistry and pathology at the University of Chicago. Divorced from Dunbar- Nelson in 1915 , Callis met and married the mother of his two daughters, Margaret Pauline Parker. In 1922 he

Article

Trévigne, Paul  

Dorothea Olga McCants

valuable observer of his era, manifesting courage and daring even at risk to his life. He helped bring about a closer bond and a degree of appreciation between his constituents and their white neighbors. He prepared the way for such writers as Desdunes, Alice Dunbar-Nelson , and later, Charles B. Roussève and Marcus Christian. The career and evaluation of Trévigne are based on Desdunes's Nos Hommes et Notre Histoire ( 1911 ), translated and edited as Our People and Our History ( 1973

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Grimké, Angelina Weld  

Mary C. Carruth

Feminine Focus: The New Women Playwrights, ed. Enoch Brater, 1989. Carolivia Herron , ed., Selected Works of Angelina Weld Grimké, 1991.— Koritha A. Mitchell , “Antilynching Plays: Angelina Weld Grimke, Alice Dunbar-Nelson, and the Evolution of African American Drama in Post-bellum, Pre-Harlem: African American Literature and Culture, 1877–1919 , eds., Barbara McCaskill and Caroline Gebhard (2006), pp. 210–210.

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Johnson, Georgia Douglas  

Louis J. Parascandola

Langston Hughes, Angelina Grimké, and Alice Dunbar-Nelson gathered. (Moorland-Spingarn.) Perhaps in response to such criticism, Johnson's next book, Bronze: A Book of Verse ( 1922 ), was much concerned with issues of race as well as gender. In his foreword, Du Bois noted somewhat condescendingly that Johnson's “word is simple, sometimes trite, but it is sincere and true.” Alice Dunbar-Nelson

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Redding, J. Saunders  

Gary Ashwill

( 1906–1988 ), literary critic and historian. A version of this article originally appeared in The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature. Taught by Alice Moore Dunbar-Nelson at his Wilmington, Delaware, high school, J. Saunders Redding earned an advanced degree in English at Brown University ( 1932 ) and was a professor at various colleges and universities, including More-house, Hampton

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Delany, Clarissa Scott  

Gwendolyn S. Jones

, Richard Bruce Nugent , Langston Hughes , Jean Toomer , Alice Dunbar-Nelson , James Weldon Johnson , W. E. B. Du Bois ,