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Julie Gallagher

Chisholm, Shirley. The Good Fight. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Chisholm, Shirley. Unbought and Unbossed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. Diamonstein, Barbaralee. Open Secrets: Ninety-four Women in Touch with Our Time. New York: Viking, 1972. Haskins, James. Fighting Shirley Chisholm. New York: Dial, 1975. Pollack, Jill S. Shirley Chisholm. New York: Franklin Watts

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Daniel A. Dalrymple

Biographies. “Shirley Chisholm”. AfricanAmericans.com. http://www.africanamericans.com/ShirleyChisholm.htm. Chisholm, Shirley. “Equal Rights for Women”. Address to the United States House of Representatives, Washington, DC, 21 May 1969. Women’s Speeches from Around the World. http://gos.sbc.edu/c/chisholm.html. Chisholm, Shirley. The Good Fight. New York: Harper and Row, 1973. Chisholm, Shirley. “The Straight-Talking Optimist: Interview with Shirley Chisholm

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Patricia E. Canson

by Shirley Chisholm. Further Reading Chisholm, Shirley. The Good Fight (1973) Chisholm, Shirley. Unbought and Unbossed (1970) Gill, LaVerne McCain. African American Women in Congress: Forming and Transforming History (1997). Hicks, Nancy. The Honorable Shirley Chisholm, Co

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Roanne Edwards

to society. Chisholm died in Florida, where she had retired, on New Year's Day, 2005. See also United States House of Representatives, African Americans in. Bibliography Chamberlain, Hope. Against the System: Shirley Chisholm, A Minority of Members: Women in the U.S. Congress. Praeger Publishers, 1973. Chisholm, Shirley. Unbought and

Primary Source

Shirley Chisholm Speech: The Black Woman in Contemporary America (1974) Since the end of the Civil War black women in America have been forced to fight for civil rights and equal treatment on two fronts. Throughout the history of Reconstruction and the civil rights movement of the 1960s the idea that African American men must come first held sway in many quarters. Even in 1995, twenty-one years after Shirley Chisholm delivered the speech presented below, the publication of Good for Business: Making Full Use

Article

Zinga A. Fraser

internationally. She sponsored and coauthored the Global AIDS and Tuberculosis Act of 2000. She has also proposed the Josephine Butler Universal Health Service Act, which would provide basic health-care rights for all Americans. After the death of Shirley Chisholm, Lee sponsored H.R. 176, which is titled the Shirley A. Chisholm United States–Caribbean Educational Exchange Act. Lee is most known for casting the only dissenting vote in Congress against President George W. Bush's decision to authorize U.S. military force in Afghanistan as a response to the

Primary Source

Chisholm’s Equal Rights Amendment Speech (1969) In 1968, Shirley Chisholm became the first African American woman elected to Congress, representing New York City’s twelfth Congressional district. Although freshmen members of Congress traditionally defer to their more senior colleagues on proceedings and keep a rather low profile, one of Chisholm’s boldest actions occurred only four months into her first term. Given the floor of the House of Representatives, Chisholm argued vociferously in support of the Equal

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Owens served in a number of community service posts, eventually leading up to a five-year stint as New York City community development commissioner. In 1974 Owens won a seat in the New York Senate. In 1982 he was elected to Congress to succeed Democrat Shirley Chisholm as the U.S. representative from New York's eleventh Congressional District. He was reelected to his eleventh term in 2002. See also Democratic Party .

Article

Adam W. Green

Democratic primary, which included a white city councilman and two other black candidates, including Owens's son. After winning the primary, Clarke easily defeated the Republican challenger in November 2006 , securing the seat once held by Shirley Chisholm , the first black woman elected to the U.S. Congress. Clarke came under scrutiny during the 2006 election for falsely claiming that she graduated from Oberlin; though she attended the liberal arts college for four years, she

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Jeff Bloodworth

Shirley Chisholm , who was retiring. The contest over New York's Twelfth Congressional District pitted Owens against his fellow African American state senator Vander Beatty. Though on the surface the two men were similar, they were polar opposites. Beatty, who was endorsed by Chisholm, was as flamboyant and unpredictable as Owens was steady. Infamous for his ill-fated drives to recall New York mayor Edward Koch and even unseat Chisholm, Beatty was also involved in numerous

Article

Matthew C. Whitaker

to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives was Shirley Chisholm. Born Shirley Anita Saint Hill , in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, New York in 1924 , Chisholm made history when she ran against James Farmer for the seat in the newly formed Twelfth Congressional District of Brooklyn in 1968. Farmer was the former leader of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). No matter who won the race, when the final votes were tallied, Brooklyn would have its first black member of Congress. Chisholm won by a landslide, however, and became the first black

Article

Melina Abdullah

her educational goals. She graduated from Mills College in Oakland with a bachelor's degree in Psychology in 1973. The previous year she had become excited about the candidacy of Shirley Chisholm for president of the United States, and when she learned that Chisholm did not have a campaign office in northern California, Lee started one and became a campaign coordinator. Upon completion of her baccalaureate degree she earned a master's degree in social welfare from the University of California

Article

sororities include Martin Luther King , Thurgood Marshall , Zora Neale Hurston , Shirley Chisholm , Adam Clayton Powell , and Sarah Vaughan . See also Colleges and Universities, Historically

Article

Akilah S. Nosakhere

the civil rights movement as an attorney and as one of the organizers of the Black Power conferences held in Newark, Philadelphia, Bermuda, and Atlanta during the 1970s. She worked to build grassroots support for independent black presidential candidates such as Dick Gregory and Shirley Chisholm. The failure of these campaigns disappointed her, yet she continued to fight. “Don't agonize. Organize” was her lifelong motto (Kennedy, p.140). Throughout her legal career Kennedy challenged oppression in all forms. No one was exempt from her far-reaching sense

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Robert Fikes

Katherine Dunham , Guion Bluford , Andrew Young , Bill Cosby , Kareem Adbul-Jabbar , Shirley Chisholm , Lena Horne , and Rosa Parks . Biographies of prominent individuals who are not African American include Indira and Rajiv Gandhi, Shirley Temple Black, Corazón Aquino, Winnie Mandela, and Christopher Columbus. One of the country's most prolific authors of nonfiction for children and young adults

Primary Source

the Equal Rights Amendment (1970) Shirley Chisholm was both the first African American woman elected to Congress and the first African American woman to run for presidency. In the speech presented below, Chisholm argued in favor of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), designed to provide an opportunity to open the doors of fairness and equality for women. Drawing parallels with the recent successes of the civil rights movement, Chisholm reminded her audience that the Constitution had not originally included provisions

Article

Mary Krane Derr

NOW. Yet NOW's earliest founders and leading participants included, along with Hernandez, such distinguished women activists of color as Pauli Murray , Shirley Chisholm , and even Fannie Lou Hamer and Graciela (Grace) Olivarez, both impassioned abortion opponents. In 1966 Hernandez also moved to San Francisco

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Kimala Price

the issues that she deemed important. Believing that feminists needed to be more involved in the electoral process, she founded, with Linda Davall , the Feminist Party in November 1971. The organization's first action was to support Shirley Chisholm in her campaign for the U.S. presidency in 1972. In response to the mainstream media's depiction of the women's movement as exclusively white and middle class, Kennedy and Margaret Sloan formed the National Black Feminist

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Donna M. Wells

James Brown and Lena Horne , the congressional members Charles Diggs , Shirley Chisholm , and Adam Clayton Powell Jr. , the funeral of President Kennedy, Sammy Davis Jr.

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Donna M. Abruzzese

, Vernon Jordan , Charles Rangel , and Shirley Chisholm . On a single night in April of 1965 the Logans raised eleven thousand dollars at a reception for King. Five weeks after King's assassination on 4 April 1968 Logan organized and led a team of medical workers to Washington