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Jeremiah I. Dibua

Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s through the 1980s. New York: Banton Books, 1990. Lawson, Steven F. Civil Rights Crossroads: Nation, Community, and the Black Freedom Struggle. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2003. Morris, Aldon D. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black CommunitiesOrganizing for Change. New York: Free Press, 1984. Sullivan, Patricia. “Civil Rights Movement.” In Africana: The Encyclopedia

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Raymond O. Arsenault

Civil Rights Movement. A version of this article originally appeared in The Oxford Companion to United States History. The American civil rights movement encompasses more than three centuries of struggle against racial discrimination, and is best understood in this broad context. Revolutionary Era through the Civil War. The movement that culminated in the organized protests and

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Wim Roefs

and the lawyers in several. In the1960s, during the height of the civil rights movement, they were the backbone of the movement. All over the South, black women were crucial as grassroots leaders, stimulating mass participation in the movement. arrest of a protester. Such scenes were typical during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. This photograph by Dick De Marsico, dated

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Simon Wendt

Civil Rights Movement. A version of this article originally appeared in The Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present. “Civil rights movement” is an umbrella term that refers to the various efforts of African American activists to gain full citizenship rights and to end racial discrimination in American society. Sustained civil rights organizing began in the early twentieth century, matured in the 1940s and 1950s, and culminated in the mass nonviolent protests of the 1960s. After

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Patricia Sullivan

Civil Rights Movement Century-long struggle against legally mandated structures of white supremacy that culminated with mass protests in the 1960s and secured the enactment of national civil rights legislation. A version of this article originally appeared in Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. The Civil Rights Movement had its roots in the constitutional amendments enacted during the

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United States of America, Britain, and the Civil Rights Movement. A version of this article originally appeared in The Oxford Companion to Black British History. The movement in the 1950s and 1960s for racial equality in the United States that used non‐violent protest to break the pattern of racial segregation and achieve national equal rights legislation for Blacks. In Britain the movement for civil rights was largely imitative of the United States and reached its peak during a shorter period, between

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and African American Experience. Early crisis in the Civil Rights Movement that began in 1957 when whites in Little Rock, Arkansas, rioted in protest against the integration of Central High School. In so doing they and Arkansas governor Orval Faubus challenged the supremacy of the federal courts, and President Dwight D. Eisenhower reluctantly sent in United States Army troops to maintain order. See Daisy Lee Gatson Bates; Civil Rights Movement .

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Alonford James Robinson

Hawkins, Edler Garnett 1908–1977 African American minister and civil rights leader who led the participation of the Presbyterian Church in the Civil Rights Movement. A version of this article originally appeared in Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Edler Garnett Hawkins was born in Bronx, New York , to Albert and Annie Lee Hawkins. He received a

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Robert Fay

Walker, Wyatt Tee 1929 – American minister and chief strategist for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference during the Civil Rights Movement. A version of this article originally appeared in Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Born in Brockton, Massachusetts , Wyatt Tee Walker left a ministerial post in Petersburg, Virginia, in 1960 to become executive director

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Nash, Diane Bevel 1938 – American civil rights activist, a founder of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and one of the few female leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. A version of this article originally appeared in Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Diane Nash, a native of Chicago, Illinois , attended

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Christina Accomando

afraid"). “We Shall Overcome” served as a powerful symbol of the civil rights movement and continues to function as a tool of solidarity and resistance. Bibliography Guy Carawan and Candie Carawan , We Shall Overcome: Songs of the Southern Freedom Movement, 1963. Bernice Johnson Reagon , Voices of the Civil Rights Movement: Black American Freedom Songs, sound recording and accompanying

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The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. For information on Direct efforts to influence government: See World War II and African Americans; Civil Rights Movement; Military, Blacks in the American . Other reactions to the social inconsistencies highlighted by World War II: See Bebop; Films, Blacks in American .

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Alonford James Robinson

JoAnn Gibson Robinson was born in Culloden, Georgia. She attended Fort Valley State College and earned an M.A. degree in English from Atlanta University in 1948. Afterward, while teaching at Alabama State College in Montgomery, she became active in the Civil Rights Movement . Robinson became president of the Women's Political Council (WPC), an organization composed of mainly middle-class black women who were committed to increasing African American participation in civic affairs. The WPC challenged Montgomery's policy

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See Affirmative Action; Black Power in the United States; Civil Rights Movement; Desegregation in the United States; Integration: An Interpretation; Jim Crow; Reconstruction; Segregation in the United States . Efforts toward African American freedom and expression: See Abolitionism in the United States; American Electoral Politics, Blacks in; Civil Rights Movement; Great Migration; Great Migration: An Interpretation; Harlem Renaissance; Underground

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Nationalism; Civil Rights; Civil Rights Movement; Pacifism; Racism. Bibliography Inge Powell Bell , CORE and the Strategy of Nonviolence , 1968. August Meier and Elliot Rudwick , CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement , 1975. James Farmer , Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement , 1985.

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For information on Twentieth-century political movements: See Antilynching Movement; Black Nationalism in the United States; Black Power in the United States; Civil Rights Movement; Feminism in the United States; Gay and Lesbian Movements in the United States; Mutual Benefit Societies; New York African Society for Mutual Relief; Pan-Africanism . Organizations involved in political movements: See

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version of this article originally appeared in Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. For information on Causes of the riots: See Civil Rights Movement; Great Migration; Labor Unions in the United States; Race Riots in the United States . Riots in Chicago, Illinois: See Binga

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Mayors, African American Heads of government in United States cities and towns. Few black mayors were elected before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, but since that time most major cities in the United States have had at least one black mayor. A version of this article originally appeared in Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. For information on

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Award for his performance in Purlie Victorious ( 1962 ). Cambridge's success on stage led to several television appearances and then to leading film roles, including Watermelon Man ( 1970 ) and Cotton Comes to Harlem ( 1970 ). He was active in the Civil Rights Movement , performing at rallies and organizing blacks in the entertainment industry. See also Film, Blacks in American .

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Wilkerson worked to further the African American struggle through his work with the Communist Party, which resulted in repeated investigations by the U.S. House Un-American Activities Committee. He resigned from the party in 1957 , and was active in the Civil Rights Movement through the 1960s. He continued civil rights and educational work until retiring in 1984.