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Factor, Pompey  

John Herschel Barnhill

Black Seminole scout, was born either in Arkansas or in Indian territory west of Arkansas. Nothing is known of his parents or childhood. Sixteen Native Americans won the Medal of Honor for their service in the Indian Wars, as the conflicts between indigenous Native Americans and European settlers and their descendents were known. Four of them, including Factor, a private, were Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts, descendants of the slaves who had found refuge with the Seminoles of Florida during the Seminole Wars of 1817 and 1836 and later migrated to Nacimiento, Mexico, in 1850.

When the Seminoles moved to Texas in 1857 the Black Seminoles remained in Mexico rather than risk being enslaved They adapted their survival skills to the new region and became invaluable scouts serving as militia for Mexico against the Comanche and Lipan Apaches Soon though they were sought after by the segregated U S Army ...


Fillmore, Charles W.  

Stephen L. Harris

soldier, politician, civil servant, and a guiding force in the establishment of the 369th U.S. Infantry Regiment, was born in Springfield, Ohio. Educated in that state, he also studied law in Ohio.

Early in his career Fillmore allied himself with Asa Bushnell, who succeeded William McKinley as governor of Ohio. Following a lynching in Urbana in 1897 Bushnell then running for reelection as governor failed to send state troops to protect a black man accused of rape Bushnell s failure to save the defenseless man outraged African Americans who believed the governor allowed the lynching fearing a backlash by white voters if he intervened At the time of the lynching Fillmore worked for Bushnell in the office of the secretary of state He was also a major in the Ninth Ohio Battalion of the Ohio National Guard then one of four black military units in ...


July, Johanna  

Kenyatta D. Berry

a black Seminole, was born around 1857 or 1858 in Nacimiento de Los Negros, the settlement established in northern Mexico following the emigration of Indian and Black Seminoles from the United States Indian Territory in 1849. In 1849 about two hundred Seminoles and blacks left the reserve without the permission of Indian agents or government officials and headed to Mexico. Nine months later they crossed into the Rio Grande at Eagle Pass. The Mexican government settled the new immigrants into two small military colonies at Muzquiz and Nacimiento de Los Negros. At its peak in 1850 this colony provided a home for more than seven hundred Black Seminole men women and children The tribes of Black Seminoles were a mixture of Seminole Indians and African American slaves fleeing from Florida after the Seminole War This group became famous for their thorough clearing of marauders from their territory ...


Payne, Adam  

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Seminole Negro Scout and Medal of Honor Recipient, was a native of Florida. While nothing specific is known about Payne's life prior to his military service, his ancestors were formerly enslaved before running away and seeking refuge with the friendly Seminole Tribe in Florida. Indeed, the Seminoles treated the large number of black runaways that sought freedom so well that many became assimilated within the tribe, adopting its language and culture. When Payne left Florida for the southwest is unknown; he may, as several biographers claim, have been among the last group of native peoples that traveled on the Trail of Tears after 1842 when the U.S. government forcibly expelled most of the remaining Seminole Tribe after the end of the long-running Seminole War to territory in what is now Oklahoma.

Payne began his military service on 12 November 1873 enlisting in the U S Army as an Indian ...


Payne, Isaac  

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Seminole Negro Scout and Medal of Honor Recipient, was born in Santa Rosa, Mexico. His father may have been Caesor Payne, a native of Florida. Based on his military service, it is highly probable that Isaac Payne's family, perhaps his father, was one of the many runaway slaves in Florida that sought refuge with the Seminole Tribe, subsequently adopting their culture and way of life. After the end of the Seminole War with the U.S. government in 1842, many Black Seminoles traveled the Trail of Tears to the Indian Territory in the southwest after being forcibly removed from their native land in Florida. Wary of further troubles and the possibility of being captured and reenslaved, many Black Seminoles subsequently moved further south into Mexico to start life anew. Nothing is known about Isaac Payne's family and life in Mexico as a youth prior to 1871.

On 7 ...


Warrior, John, aka John Ward  

Glenn Allen Knoblock

a Seminole IndianNegro Scout in the U.S. Army and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Arkansas. Warrior's family background was a mix of Seminole Indian and African American heritage. This resulted when either his father or mother, like many who were enslaved in the pre-Civil War South, ran away from his or her master and found refuge and freedom with the Seminole Nation in Florida. Here they would stay and marry within the tribe. Beginning in the second decade of the nineteenth century, the Seminoles fought a series of wars with the Spanish and U.S. governments to retain their tribal lands; among those who fought in these wars were many Black Seminoles. It may be speculated that Warrior's family name was derived from their fighting abilities. When the second Seminole War ended in 1842 many among the Seminoles except for a few holdouts were forcibly removed to ...