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Callimachus of Kyrene  

Duane W. Roller

was a major poet and scholar of the third century BCE. He was born at the end of the previous century in Kyrene (also Cyrene), the important Greek city on the coast of Africa west of Egypt in present-day Libya. He was of distinguished background: his homonymous grandfather was a member of the ruling elite of the city. The younger Callimachus immigrated to Alexandria in Egypt at an early age and became an intimate at the court of Ptolemaios II (who came to the throne in early 282 BCE). Callimachus was part of the developing intellectual presence around the Ptolemies, which at that time included the mathematician Euclid and the poets Theokritos and Apollonios of Rhodes. He was especially close to the queen, Arsinoë II, and wrote her eulogy.

When Arsinoë died around 270 BCE Callimachus may have fallen out of favor since little is known about him for ...


Cruse, Harold  

Yusuf Nuruddin

Harold Cruse (8 March 1916–20 March 2005), an iconoclastic social critic and a largely self-educated cultural historian, achieved distinction as the preeminent African American dissident public intellectual of the 1960s. Although he authored several books, his reputation rests largely on his monumental work The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (1967), a flawed yet brilliant, imaginative, sweeping, and provocative polemic. A thematically united collection of essays, Crisis presents a withering assessment of the black intelligentsia for its self-defeating embrace of both liberal and radical integrationist politics, especially its involvement in the Communist Party, of which Cruse was once a member.

Within the Communist Party and other leftist organizations black political interests according to Cruse historically have been subordinated to white political interests including Jewish and white ethnic nationalisms As a remedy Cruse calls upon the black intelligentsia to abandon its bankrupt integrationist strategies and embrace its ...


Ibn Rashiq  

Russell Hopley

literary theorist, poet, anthologist, was born in Masila in the region of Constantine, a city in present-day Algeria, to a family of Arab origin. Hasan al-Qayrawani al-Azdi al-Masili Ibn Rashiq displayed an early interest in Arabic literature, and following his primary education in Masila he was sent to al-Qayrawan in 1015/1016 to pursue his secondary studies. There he was able to study under some of the most eminent literary figures of eleventh-century Ifriqiya (present-day Tunisia), among them the grammarian Abu ʿAbd Allah al-Qazzaz, and the poets Ibrahim al-Husri, Abu Muhammad al-Khushani, and Abu Muhammad ʿAbd al-Karim al-Nahshali. This latter was, like Ibn Rashiq, a native of Masila, and his principal work, al-Mumtiʿ fi ʿilm al-shʿir wa ʿamalih, served as Ibn Rashiq’s introduction to classical Arabic poetry, as it did for an entire generation of North African poets.

An accomplished poet by the age of nineteen Ibn Rashiq became a ...


Ibn Sharaf, Abu ʿAbd Allah Muhammad ibn Abi Saʿid al-Jidhami al-Qayrawani  

Russell Hopley

poet, litterateur, and historian, was born in the Tunisian city of al-Qayrawan to a family of Arab origin. Ibn Sharaf received his education in the Islamic sciences at the hand of several North African luminaries of the eleventh century, including the eminent jurists Abu al-Hasan al-Qabisi (d. 1012) and Abu ‘Imran al-Fasi (d. 1039), who provided the young pupil with a thorough training in Islamic jurisprudence. Ibn Sharaf also studied with Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Qazzaz (d. 1021–1022) in the fields of Arabic grammar and lexicography, and he was introduced to classical Arab literature by the poet and belle-lettrist Ibrahim al-Husri (d. 1022). It is likely that Ibn Sharaf received his initial exposure to Arab verse by studying the poetic selections found in the anthology al-Mumti‘ fi ‘ilm al-sh‘ir wa ‘amalih a work that served to initiate an entire ...


Raqiq, al-Qayarawani, al-  

Russell Hopley

poet, littérateur, historian, and court secretary, was born in al-Qayrawan around the time of the Fatimid departure from Ifriqiya to Egypt in 972. His full name was Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn al-Qasim al-Raqiq. Al-Raqiq acted as court secretary during a period of some forty years for three Zirid emirs: al-Mansur ibn Buluggin (r. 983–995), Badis (r. 995–1016), and al-Muʿizz (r. 1016–1062 An especially refined personage al Raqiq appears to have played an important role in several diplomatic missions to lands neighboring the Zirid state a number of which were quite sensitive in nature Prominent among these missions was the Zirid embassy to the court of the Fatimid sovereign al Hakim in 998 designed to consolidate the ties that brought these two North African states into alliance with one another It is also reported that al Raqiq accompanied the Zirid army on campaigns in the hinterland of Ifriqiya undertaken to ...


Yahya Ibn Khaldun  

Allen J. Fromherz

a North African scholar, was born into a prominent, intellectual family, the descendants of Andalusi exiles in Tunis, the capital of the Almohad Hafsid dynasty. Although known primarily as the younger brother of the more famous historian ʿAbd al-Rahman Ibn Khaldun, Abu Zakariyya Yahya Ibn Khaldun was a noted and important chronicler, poet, statesman, and scholar in his own right. A fairly intimate picture of Yahya Ibn Khaldun emerged in both the text and the subtext his older brother’s autobiography, the Taʿrif. The elder Ibn Khaldun saw his younger brother as something of a protégé.

It is fair to assume that Yahya would have followed many parts of his brother s path and would have studied under important and influential scholars such as the philosopher and rationalist al Abili Yahya wrote about al Abili and his work especially the scholar s famous protest against the formalization of education in official schools ...