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Scott, Emmett Jay  

Edgar Allan Toppin

educator and publicist, was born in Houston, Texas, the son of Horace Lacy Scott, a civil servant, and Emma Kyle. Scott attended Wiley College in Marshall, Texas, for three years but left college in 1890 for a career in journalism. Starting as a janitor and messenger for a white daily newspaper, the Houston Post, he worked his way up to reporter. In 1894 he became associate editor of a new black newspaper in Houston, the Texas Freeman. Soon he was named editor and built this newspaper into a leading voice in black journalism in its region. Initially, he tied his fortune to the state's preeminent black politician, Norris Cuney, and was his secretary for a while.

When Cuney retired, Scott turned to Booker T. Washington, the founder of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Scott greatly admired Washington, praising his 1895 Atlanta Compromise ...

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Simmons, William James  

Sandy Dwayne Martin

Baptist leader, educator, and race advocate, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of enslaved parents, Edward Simmons and Esther (maiden name unknown). During his youth, Simmons's mother escaped slavery with him and two of his siblings, relocating to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Simmons's uncle, Alexander Tardieu (or Tardiff a shoemaker became a father to the children and a protector and provider for the fugitive slave family He moved them among the cities of Philadelphia Roxbury Massachusetts and Chester Pennsylvania constantly eluding persistent slave catchers before permanently taking residence in Bordentown New Jersey While Simmons never received formal elementary or secondary school education his uncle made a point of teaching the children to read and write As a youth Simmons served as an assistant to a white dentist in Bordentown At the age of fifteen he joined the Union army participating in a number of major battles ...