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Coffee  

Alice Knox Eaton

or Cuffee slave insurrectionist was the reported leader of the first major slave rebellion in the American colonies His name means son born on a Friday in the Akan language of Gold Coast Africans The Akan known in the era of the slave trade as Coromantees were reputed to resist enslavement with great bravery and ferocity In the early eighteenth century slavery had become an integral part of the economy of New York City with an active slave market and a regular influx of slave labor from Africa As the slave population grew treatment of slaves became increasingly brutal as British colonists attempted to make slave labor as productive in the North as it was in the South Unlike slaves on southern plantations however slaves in New York City lived in densely populated areas and had many more opportunities to meet with one another and plan organized resistance On the ...

Article

Jemmy  

Steven J. Niven

leader of the 1739 Stono slave rebellion, was born in central Africa, most likely in the Kingdom of Kongo, now part of Angola, and brought as a slave to the British colony of South Carolina in the 1730s. A majority of the African slaves sold by the British Royal African Company to South Carolina in the early eighteenth century originated in Kongo, an independent kingdom that had converted to Christianity more than two hundred years earlier. If typical of Kongolese slaves brought to South Carolina, Jemmy would have worshipped a combination of Roman Catholicism and older African faiths and may well have had knowledge of Portuguese, or some Creolized variant of that language, which was the lingua franca of the slave trade and of the Kongo elite Jemmy s ability as a military leader and the fighting skills of his fellow rebels had probably been acquired through service in ...

Article

Washington, Madison  

Zoe Trodd

was born into slavery in central Virginia, and his parentage and precise date of birth are unknown. Washington was the instigator of a slave revolt onboard the U.S. brig Creole in 1841. Very little is known about Washington's life before and after the Creole revolt. Married at the age of twenty, he escaped from slavery in 1839 and reached Canada in 1840 after traveling through either Ohio or New York State. He returned to Virginia to free his wife in 1841 and was helped on his return journey by abolitionists in Rochester. But when he reached Virginia he was recaptured, sold to a slave broker named Thomas McCargo, and placed on the Creole with 134 other slaves.

The ship left the port of Richmond, Virginia, on 25 October 1841 bound for New Orleans Louisiana where the slaves would be sold at auction Also on board were thirteen ...

Article

Washington, Madison  

Sam Hitchmough

Madison Washington escaped from slavery twice. His actions resulted in widespread admiration from abolitionists—including Frederick Douglass, who hailed Washington as a hero—and spawned novellas, pamphlets, and other antislavery literature that contributed to the widening attack on the institution in the early 1840s.

Washington first escaped slavery when he ran away to Canada. Unable to live freely without his enslaved wife, he returned to the South in a bid to rescue her, which ended tragically when she was killed in the attempt and Washington was enslaved once more. Washington is, however, principally remembered for his second escape from slavery. With a cargo of 135 slaves, the American slave brig Creole sailed from Hampton Roads, Virginia, bound for New Orleans in October 1841 with the re enslaved Washington on board In November a group of nineteen slaves led by Washington seized the boat killing one white crewman and forced a ...