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Juliette Bridgette Milner-Thornton

author, conservationist, philanthropist, pioneer of safari camps and walking safaris in Northern Rhodesia (present day Zambia), was born on 19 July 1912 in Chinde, a British coastal concession in Mozambique. In 1940 Carr married Barbara Lennon, daughter of the senior British warden at the local “native” prison in Zomba. Barbara was an employee of the Nyasaland Secretariat. Norman and Barbara had three children Judy, Pamela, and Adrian. Their daughter Pam Guhr and her husband, Vic Guhr, are conservationists and wildlife artists in Zambia. Pam is also a licensed safari guide; her brother Adrian at some point was a professional hunter in Sudan, he is currently co-owner and director of Norman Carr Safaris, a safari company founded by his father. Barbara Carr, like her husband was an author. Her first book, Cherries on my Plate (1965 describes her schooling in England return to and ...

Article

Eric Bennett

Born in a poor Germantown section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Bill Cosby left home for a stint in the United States Navy that lasted from 1956 to 1960. He studied at Temple University in Philadelphia but dropped out to devote his time to stand-up comedy. After establishing his name on the nightclub circuit in 1963, Cosby auditioned successfully to fill a guest spot on American television entertainer Johnny Carson's Tonight Show. An instant success, Cosby became the first African American to host the program regularly. In 1965 he became the first black person to have a starring role on a predominantly white television drama, appearing alongside Robert Culp on the program I Spy. Because of Cosby's Emmy Award–winning success on I Spy, many fans paralleled his success with that of African American professional baseball player Jackie Robinson.

As a rising television celebrity Cosby ...

Article

Donald Roe

comedian, actor, philanthropist. When Bill Cosby, the wealthy, well-educated, mild-mannered comedian, goes on stage and begins a monologue of funny stories relating to his poverty-stricken background, the stories are most likely true. William Henry Cosby Jr. was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, to William Henry Cosby Sr. and Anna Cosby in 1937. Known by its inhabitants as the “Jungle,” the Richard Allen housing projects, where Cosby grew up, were depressing, stylized, beige-colored, concrete housing, seemingly designed to prevent poor people from “contaminating” the rest of society.

When an IQ test confirmed that Cosby was highly intelligent his mother enrolled him in Central High School a school for gifted children However Cosby found it difficult to adjust there and transferred to Germantown High School There athletics provided a positive outlet for Cosby but his academic performance declined When school officials required him to repeat the tenth grade he ...

Article

Cajetan N. Iheka

Nigerian entrepreneur, industrialist, and philanthropist, was born on 10 April 1957 in the Northern Nigeria state of Kano to the family of Mohammed Dangote and Hajiya Mariya Dangote (née Dantata). His father, Mohammed, was a businessman, while his mother was a granddaughter of the successful businessman Alhaji Alhassan Dantata. Dangote attended his primary and secondary schools in Kano before proceeding to Alazahar University in Cairo, Egypt, where he studied business. He admitted in an interview that his interest in business started during his primary school days in Kano, where he bought cartons of sweets (candy), which he then resold at a profit. That early entrepreneurial spirit—and the perception that there was money to be made from Nigerians’ love of sugar—would launch his later business successes.

In 1977 with the help of a loan from his uncle Alhaji Sanusi Dantata Dangote started what is today known as the Dangote Group ...

Article

Peter Carr Jones

music, fashion, and movie industry entrepreneur. The former co-owner of Roc-A-Fella Records with Shawn “Jay-Z” Carter and Kareem “Biggs” Burke, Damon Dash cross-promoted several products within a single brand, Roc-A-Fella. He ran the corporate side of Roc-A-Fella, especially the fashion and movie production divisions, until being bought out in 2004.

Dash was born in East Harlem, New York, to a lower-middle class, single-parent family. He earned scholarships to several prestigious private schools, though each expelled him. His mother died when Dash was only fifteen, but he continued his education until the twelfth grade, and got his GED in 1988. After this, he ran a small party promotion company, Dash Entertainment.

In 1994 he met Jay-Z and became his manager. When the established record companies passed on Jay-Z's original album, Reasonable Doubt, Dash, Jay-Z, and silent partner Burke formed Roc-A-Fella in 1996 Def Jam Records ...

Article

Shennette Garrett-Scott

philanthropist and auto worker, was born the fifth of seven children to Bessie Hall and Matel Dawson, Sr. in Shreveport, Louisiana, on 3 January 1921. Like tens of thousands of other black men and women, Dawson left the South and moved to Detroit for better paying jobs created by the demands of the World War II economy.

He began working for the Ford Motor Company in 1940 initially earning about $1 15 an hour He became a forklift operator Known for consistently working twelve hour shifts and weekends and for seldom taking time off he diligently saved as much of his salary as he could He also invested in the company s employee stock program At one time he owned a large home and well appointed automobiles but after his divorce in the late 1970s he sought a simpler lifestyle and lived frugally In the early ...

Article

Kathleen F. Esmiol

entrepreneur, philanthropist, community activist, and businesswoman, was the fourth of seven children born to Herbert and Mattie Brinson Bragg, tenant farmers in Luther, Oklahoma. Duncan's parents were hard working role models, and she learned the basics of business by watching her father manage a sprawling farm. She also gained organizational skills by helping her mother maintain an active family of nine.

Sadly, Herbert Bragg's untimely death at Thanksgiving in 1926 eventually forced the family to leave Depression-era Oklahoma, and in 1933 they sought opportunity in Colorado Springs Colorado where Duncan attended desegregated schools A focused but gregarious student she participated in extracurricular school activities but to support the family she also waitressed and worked as a housekeeper for a real estate developer Russian Count Benjamin Lefkowsky who recognized her potential and became a mentor Financially unable to pursue her goal of attending Langston College upon ...

Article

During his career Julius Erving—known to fans and announcers as Dr. J—set new standards of performance in his sport and made the slam-dunk into one of the most exciting moves in professional Basketball.

Julius Winfield Erving Jr. was born in East Meadow, New York. He grew up playing basketball on New York City playgrounds and then for Roosevelt High School. He recalled, “My first [slam] dunk was at the Prospect Elementary School, where they had 8-foot baskets and 13-foot ceilings. By the time I was in ninth grade, I was dunking the regular baskets.” Erving attended the University of Massachusetts, and during his sophomore and junior years (1969–1971), he led his team in scoring in forty-six of fifty-two varsity games.

In 1971 Erving left school to join the Virginia Squires of the American Basketball Association (ABA). He was named rookie of the year for the 1971 ...

Article

Alphonse Fletcher, Jr., known by the nickname Buddy, was born in Waterford, Connecticut. He attended Harvard University, graduating in 1987 with a bachelor's degree in applied mathematics. In his senior year, his fellow students chose him marshal, or president, of his class.

After graduating, Fletcher worked as an investment manager for the Wall Street firm of Bear, Stearns & Company before joining Kidder, Peabody & Company as a senior vice president managing an equity arbitrage group. Although he was among its most successful traders, the relationship ended poorly, with Fletcher's resignation in 1991. He subsequently sued the firm over a disputed bonus. Citing racial discrimination, he alleged that the company underpaid him approximately $2 million. His suits resulted in an arbitration award to him of $1.3 million in 1992, although a separate arbitration found no evidence of discrimination.

Immediately after Fletcher left Kidder Peabody he founded Fletcher ...

Article

Hassoum Ceesay

pioneer Gambian female newspaper editor, broadcaster, and philanthropist, was born in London, England, to British parents. She met and married her Gambian husband, Kebba Wally Foon, in the late 1940s, while he was studying accounting in the United Kingdom. In 1955 she joined him in Gambia, took up dual nationality, learned the local Wolof dialect, and lived in the country for the next several decades.

Marion became editor of the Vanguard in 1958, the first woman to hold such a position in the history of Gambia. The Vanguard was the most vociferous of the three major nationalist independent newspapers published in Gambia at the time (the others were the Gambia Echo and Gambia Outlook). Marion and her husband bought it in 1958 from its proprietor John Bright and used it as a mouthpiece of the newly created Gambia National Party a pro independence ...

Article

Joanna Davenport

It was a historic moment. In the 1990 Wimbledon women’s singles final, Martina Navratilova won her ninth singles title, a record held by no other person, when she defeated Zina Garrison, the first black woman to play on Wimbledon’s center court since 1958, when Althea Gibson won her second of two Wimbledon crowns. Being first has been a common occurrence for the professional tennis player Zina Garrison.

Zina Garrison, the youngest of seven children, was born in Houston, Texas, to Mary and Ulysses Garrison Her father died before she was a year old so Garrison was raised by her mother who worked as an aide in a nursing home When Zina was ten she began playing tennis at the local public park courts where she received instruction from the resident coach Impressed with her talent he entered her in local tournaments where she did well By the ...

Article

Amanda Harmon Cooley

businessperson, corporate executive, and educator. Dennis Fowler Hightower, the son of Marvin W. Hightower and Anna Virginia Hightower, was born in Washington, D.C., and grew up in LeDroit Park, a neighborhood in the District of Columbia in which many other prominent African Americans, from Duke Ellington to the Reverend Jesse Jackson, have lived. As a child Hightower spent time at Camp Atwater in North Brookfield, Massachusetts, which was established in 1921 by William N. DeBerry with the mission to help African American children. After graduating from McKinley High School at age sixteen, Hightower continued his studies at Howard University, earning a bachelor of science degree in 1962.

Then Hightower enlisted in the U S Army beginning an eight year military career that included active service in the Vietnam War His leadership advanced him to the rank of major by the age of twenty seven ...

Article

Mona E. Jackson

With business acumen and a keen aesthetic sense, Eunice Walker Johnson has served as the fashion editor of Ebony magazine and the secretary-treasurer of Johnson Publishing Company. In addition she has been producer and director of the Ebony Fashion Fair traveling fashion show for more than forty years. She is also a philanthropist who has donated more than $49 million to the United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and other African American charities.

Eunice Walker Johnson was born in Selma, Alabama, to Nathaniel D. and Ethel Walker. Her family displayed a strong commitment to gaining higher education and to hard work, and it passed those principles down through the generations. Johnson’s maternal grandfather, William H. McAlpine who was born into slavery was the incorporator and second president of Selma University in Selma Alabama He was also one of the founders and the first president of the National Baptist ...

Article

Michael Toussaint

was born around 1900 in Buxton, British Guiana. He was christened with the name of his father, George Thomas Nathaniel Griffith. However, he would change his name in 1935, following the outbreak of the Second Italio-Abyssinian War, out of a desire to identify strongly with Ethiopia’s cause and the worldwide struggle of African-descended people to liberate themselves from colonialism and racism. His strong empathy with Ethiopia might also have resulted from the fact that he believed his paternal grandfather to be Ethiopian.

Makonnen received his primary education in Buxton and his secondary education at Queen s College in Georgetown the capital of British Guiana From an early age he became involved in the small scale business activities of his father who worked in the colony s mining industry as a miner It was therefore not surprising that Makonnen would wish to pursue higher education in mineralogy at a college ...

Article

Mary K. Dains

Malone, Annie Turnbo (09 August 1869–10 May 1957), African-American businesswoman, manufacturer, and philanthropist was born in Metropolis Illinois the daughter of Robert Turnbo and Isabella Cook farmers Little is known of the early childhood of Annie Turnbo Malone except that she was second youngest of eleven children Her parents were former slaves in Kentucky Her father joined the Union army during the Civil War and her mother escaped to Illinois with her small children After the war Robert Turnbo joined his family at Metropolis where he became a farmer and landowner Following the death of both parents Annie went to live with older brothers and sisters in Metropolis and later Peoria and Lovejoy Illinois She completed public school education in Metropolis and attended high school in Peoria Because of ill health she did not complete her high school education In these early years Malone dreamed of making ...

Article

Tiffany M. Gill

The dawn of the twentieth century witnessed the materialization of the black beauty culture industry and the emergence of the black female beauty industry mogul. Annie Turnbo Malone, while not as well known as her contemporary, Madam C. J. Walker, pioneered many of the methods and goals of this global enterprise and transformed the role of African American women in business.

Annie Turnbo Malone was a child of the Reconstruction Era. Her father, Robert Turnbo, fought for the Union in the Civil War while her mother, Isabella Cook Turnbo fled their native Kentucky with their two children Eventually the family reunited in Metropolis Illinois and the couple had nine more children Annie was second youngest Robert and Isabella Turnbo died while Annie was young and her elder sisters raised her After moving to Peoria Illinois Annie attended high school where she acquired a fondness for chemistry which combined ...

Article

Jeremy Rich

basketball player and philanthropist, was born on 25 June 1966 in Kinshasa the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo His mother was Biamba Marie Mutombo and his father was Samuel Mutombo They named him Dikembe Mutombo Mpolondo Mukama Jean Jacques Wamutombo Both his parents belonged to the Luba ethnic community He was the seventh of ten children Mutombo s father the principal of a secondary school and later a civil servant in the Congolese ministry of education instilled in his son a great respect for learning Mutombo eventually would speak French Spanish Italian English Lingala Tshiluba and three other African languages Mutombo attended primary and secondary school in the Congo without ever touching a basketball even though he later became a star in this sport It was only at the age of eighteen that Mutombo handled a basketball for the first time He managed to cut himself ...

Article

Ebenezer Ayesu

chief (traditional ruler), economist, business leader, university administrator, and philanthropist, was born Emmanuel Noi Omaboe on 29 October 1930 in Amanokrom, Akuapem in the eastern region of Ghana. His parents were Madam Mary Opibea Awuku of the royal Asona family of Amanokrom and Mr. Peter Nortey Omaboe, a prominent goldsmith resident at Mamfe and a citizen of Osu. He was enrolled in Mamfe Presbyterian Junior School from 1936 to 1942, completed his primary education at the Suhum Presbyterian Senior School in 1945, and from 1946 to 1950 studied at Accra Academy. There, he was a peer of several students who would be future leaders of Ghana, including Peter Ala Adjetey, who went on to a career as a noted lawyer and speaker of Ghana’s parliament (2000–2004). In 1951 he entered the University College of the Gold Coast now the University of Ghana to study economics ...

Article

Roger Pfister

South African business tycoon, was born on 4 October 1916 in Graaf-Reinet. From modest beginnings, born into a Boer lawyer’s family in the rural Eastern Cape Province, Rupert took up studies in medicine in Pretoria, which he did not complete. However, thereafter he concluded his chemistry studies with a master’s degree at the University of Pretoria, where he subsequently lectured for a short period.

Rupert then moved to Stellenbosch which is well known for its wine estates Together with his family two sons one daughter and remaining true to his Afrikaner roots Rupert was to stay in this Afrikaans dominated village near the predominantly English speaking Cape Town until his death There he also laid the foundations for what was to become a tobacco and industrial empire At the time the country s economy was characterized by a disjuncture between Afrikaner and English speaking business Traditionally Afrikaner economic activity was ...

Article

Vincent A. Shivers

football Hall of Famer, author, and business executive. Gale Eugene Sayers was born in Wichita, Kansas. In 1951, after the death of Gale's grandfather, the family moved to Nebraska. In Nebraska, Sayers began his career as an athlete, joining the Midget Football League and becoming a standout. At Omaha's Central High School he was an exceptional track-and-field athlete, receiving three gold medals. As a senior he set a statewide record in the long jump. Sayers was named to the All-Midwestern and All-American high school football teams. He signed several letters of intent for football scholarships. Institutions such as Iowa State and Notre Dame were interested in Sayers, but he decided on the University of Kansas at Lawrence.

Sayers earned the nickname the Kansas Comet because of his remarkable skills as a running back While a freshman Sayers struggled with his classes fortunately that same year he ...