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Howard Paige and Mark H. Zanger

This entry includes two subentries:

To the Civil War

Since Emancipation


Mylene Priam

Antillanité is a neologism invented and introduced by Edouard Glissant at the end of the 1950s. The Martinican novelist, poet, activist, and theorist’s first attempt to discuss the construct occurred in 1969, in his essay L’Intention poétique (The Poetic Intention). But it was in 1981, in the author’s famous Caribbean Discourse (Le Discours antillais), that the theory was fully developed. “[T]o analyze … the structure of Martinican reality” (“analyser … la structure du réel martiniquais”)—such is, in Caribbean Discourse, Glissant’s initial objective, for he notes that Martinique’s reality has been too deeply violated to be positively and effectively perceived or nurtured by the island’s people, victims of centuries of colonialism (Le Discours, p. 465, translation by the author). For Edouard Glissant, Martinique is the tragic example of an effective colonization. (In 1946 Martinicans chose by referendum to become French citizens ...


Cynthia Tse Kimberlin

Ethiopian ethnomusicologist, composer, scholar, and teacher, was born in Addis Ababa. His paternal grandfather was Liqe Mekuwas Adinew Goshu, a renowned hero of the Battle of Adwa and a close confidant of Empress Taitu. His great grandfather, Dejazmach Goshu, served as a mentor and teacher to Emperor Tewodros. The most creative and artistic individual in his family was his mother, Fantaye Nekere, who composed verse and poetry. She taught Ashenafi about Ethiopian artistic forms, which he later drew upon for his work.

Ashenafi first showed an interest in music while attending Haile Selassie I Elementary School. After attending the Harar Teachers’ Training School, he taught music at Haile Sellassie I University and the Addis Ababa YMCA before obtaining his BA in Music (1962 from the University of Rochester s Eastman School of Music in the United States He returned to Addis Ababa to serve as the first official ...


Christopher Wise

Malian diplomat, ethnographer, devout Muslim, and defender of traditional African culture, was born in 1901 in Bandiagara, Mali, capital of the Toucouleur Empire of the Macina Fulani, which was founded by the Tidjaniya jihadist al-Hajj ʿUmar Tal. At the time of Bâ’s birth, the French had been in control of Bandiagara for nearly a decade. His father, Hampâté, a Fulani militant from Fakala, died two years after Bâ was born. His mother, Kadidja Pâté, was the daughter of Pâté Poullou, a close personal companion of al-Hajj ʿUmar Tal. After her husband’s death, Kadidja remarried Tidjani Amadou Ali Thiam, a Toucouleur Fulani and Louta chief, who became Bâ’s adoptive father. At an early age, Bâ became intimate with Tierno Bokar Tall, the renowned “sage of Bandiagara,” who was his lifelong teacher, spiritual guide, and personal mentor. In 1912 Bâ was enrolled in the French colonialist School of the Hostages remaining ...



Tal Tamari

The Bambara, now often also known in English as the Bamana, are the single most numerous people of the Republic of Mali. Small populations that identify themselves as Bamana are also found in Senegal, Mauritania, and the Ivory Coast. The Bamana have been widely admired for their art and complex traditional religion. They have also been noted as state-builders and for their oral literature.

The Bamana language has been classified as one of the Manding also known as core Mande languages which also include Dyula spoken in northern Ivory Coast and western Burkina Faso Maninka spoken in southern Mali and northern Guinea and Mandinka spoken in the Gambia Though each may be characterized by considerable dialectal diversity most of these languages are mutually intelligible There is a more distant cultural and linguistic relationship to the other Northern Mande languages such as Soninke and a yet more ancient affinity to Southern ...


Lutz Marten

Tanzanian linguist and academic, was born in Mwanza, Tanzania, on 1 January 1947, as the eighth child of Michael Masalu, medical assistant, and Melania Humbo. The family lived in the suburbs of Mwanza, a provincial town in the northwest of what was then Tanganyika. Before his birth, two of his father’s cousins had come to visit the family, but, because his uncle had mistreated him when he lived with them as an orphan, his father turned them away with the words “batiboyi abakanibyaala It is not them who gave birth to me These words were used to call the newborn child in the Sukuma culture Batibo s ethnic group children are named according to events or circumstances at the time of birth The long name was soon shortened to Batibo and used as his surname At Batibo s christening the Bavarian priest administering the baptism found the ...


Carolyn Wedin

Since its highly publicized, successful, and controversial opening in 1915, the twelve-reel, feature-length D. W. Griffith film The Birth of a Nation has presented enduring questions of how to deal with a filmic work of art that is so bad because it is so good, so dangerous because it is so convincing. Seemingly able to inform and sway audiences on its historic topic—the South in the Civil War of 1861–1865 and the period of Reconstruction that followed—The Birth of a Nation has reached millions of people with a particular slant on race relations and American history, a bias difficult to access and more difficult still to eradicate.


Aparajita Nanda

The Bay Area in California which includes San Francisco the North Bay the East Bay the Peninsula and the South Bay is an extensive and geographically varied metropolitan region It is home to more than 7 million people and boasts a free spirited lifestyle cultural diversity and hopes and dreams that find expression in liberal politics and entrepreneurship A multidimensional writing community that blurs the lines of ethnic demarcation has arisen from the concentration of writers of all colors in the Bay Area Forming an integral part of this community are African American novelists who write not only of the black experience but also of the marginalization of other writers of color Despite hardships the omnipresence of existential threat the works of these writers celebrate human strength and a spiritual aesthetic that acknowledges the beauty of life and a faith in humanity This article provides an overview of a representative ...


Perhaps no two films give as clear a window into the experiences of working-class black men in Southern California as Killer of Sheep (1978) and Boyz N the Hood (1991). Though shot in very different styles and moments, both communicate working-class despair as it plays out against the Los Angeles landscape.

Charles Burnett, director of Killer of Sheep, was a member of what is now known as the LA Rebellion, a group of black filmmakers trained at UCLA who experimented with new ways to tell stories about black experience. These filmmakers used cinematic techniques drawn from a wide variety of international film movements, including the New Wave cinemas, Italian Neorealism, and avant-garde and experimental film. Killer of Sheep s first scene is unexplained and yet intimate revealing close ups of an unnamed man yelling at his preteen son for not defending his brother This ...


Scott Yanow

was born in San Francisco, California, the son of a Choctaw and African American father and a Japanese mother. Due to his father being in the army, Brown grew up all around the world at various army bases.

His older brother Mike Brown (who later was a bassist with Bo Diddley) played guitar as a teenager. He taught his ten-year-old sibling chords on the guitar and how to play the blues. However Anthony Brown switched to drums in junior high after seeing his brother’s band because the drummer seemed to be having the most fun. Brown earned his Bachelor’s degrees in Music and Psychology at the University of Oregon, and his Master’s and Ph.D. degrees in Ethnomusicology at the University Of California, Berkeley.

He made his recording debut in 1979 with pianist Jon Jang From the start of his career Brown was always interested in combining compositional approaches and ...


The Caribbean region is more often stereotyped and dismissed in Britain than taken seriously as a location for art production, and has only ever reached small audiences, despite some significant exhibitions and critical attention.

1.Images and objects collected from the Caribbean during the colonial period

2.Migration of artists during the 20th century

3.Art reception in the 1960s and 1970s

4.Exhibitions of the 1980s and 1990s

5.Curatorial selection and its consequences

There is little consensus on what defines a coherent category of Caribbean art in terms of its geographical boundaries and cultural character and given its growing diaspora The region s Anglophone countries have contributed the most to art exhibitions staged in the United Kingdom the consequence of a shared colonial history and of migration Throughout the post Second World War period many artists from the Caribbean engaged in struggles for acceptance within the history of ...


Anne Walmsley

Movement formed by West Indian writers and artists in London in 1966. Its membership, programme of events, and publications from 1967 to 1972 reflected a time of crossroads in the Caribbean and for West Indians in Britain It made a significant contribution to new directions in Caribbean arts ...


Alice Ross and Mark H. Zanger

The Caribbean influence on American food has been continual for hundreds of years, initially in coastal areas of similar climate, from Texas to the Carolinas. The early Spanish involvement in the Caribbean brought Caribbean foods to Europe and Africa, from whence they quickly returned to North America. Spanish gold shipments attracted other Europeans to the area and brought about the colonization of eastern North America. Cheap Caribbean sugar, coffee, cocoa, and spices have influenced the palates and tables of all Americans. The peoples of the Caribbean islands have developed multicultural cuisines that have been affecting American cooking at all levels since colonial times.

Influence of the Caribbean on contemporary American food may predate Columbus, because there is some possibility that Caribbean Indians reached Florida and introduced tropical tubers, or chilies. The chain of influence began in 1492 as the varieties of maize beans chilies squash peanuts and cassava collected ...


Philip Nanton

Radio series broadcast by the BBC between 1943 and 1950 aimed, through creative writing, at capturing the Caribbean from as many sides as possible. In the life of the programme some 400 stories and poems, along with plays and literary criticism, were broadcast. There were some 372 contributors, of whom 71 were women. The years 1946 to 1958 comprised the high point of the programme, which coincided with the editorship of Henry Swanzy (1915–2004). In any period of six months during his years as editor some 24 programmes were broadcast. They contained around 28 short stories and sketches. Thirteen programmes of this total were devoted to poetry, and the remainder of the time was allocated to critical discussion groups, called the Critics' Circle, comprising a mix of critics from the Caribbean and Britain.

The programme helped to launch the careers of many authors including a number who went ...


Postgraduate research centre at the University of Birmingham whose staff and students researched and published in the field of cultural studies, which it was instrumental in inaugurating.




4.Richard Hoggart and the aims and aspirations of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

5.Stuart ...


Erik Kjeldgaard

The word “Creole” exists in similar forms in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, with the Oxford English Dictionary locating the word’s origins in the Spanish criollo, a variant of criado, meaning “reared,” “bred,” or “brought up.” Thus, it originally designated a person of Spanish ancestry born in the American colonies. A cognate form signified Portuguese colonists in Africa and Cape Verde from the fifteenth century. Criado has its ultimate roots in Latin, “to create,” which is significant in light of the perspectives developed by diaspora thinkers under the rubric of Créolité (“creoleness”), discussed below. This article addresses the cultural and linguistic senses of the term “creole,” as well as “Créolité,” which describes a literary and intellectual movement led by Martinican writers Jean Bernabé, Raphaël Confiant, and Patrick Chamoiseau.

Creole first designates the cultural conditions characteristic of societies in which contact and blending occur between diverse ...


Michael Kevane

Burkinan author, canton chief, and civil servant, was born in Sao village, about 60 kilometers northwest of Ouagadougou, in the Mossi region of the present-day country of Burkina Faso. His mother was Datoumi Yaaré, from the village of Kaonghin; and his father, Gueta Wagdogo, was the son of Yiougo, the naba (Mossi chief) of Sao. Naba Yiougo supported Mogho Naba Wobgo (Boukary Koutu), the principal king of the four Mossi kingdoms, against a rebelling vassal, the naba of Lallé. In 1896, Mogho Naba Wobgo supported Gueta Wagdogo to attain the chieftaincy (whereupon he assumed the name “Naba Piiga”) after the death of Naba Yiougo. The meaning of Dim Delobsom’s name, “The king has returned the favor,” acknowledged the relationship between the two rulers.

Naba Piiga was unable to help his suzerain when the French column led by Captain Paul Voulet seized Ouagadougou on 1 September 1896 Mogho Naba ...


Sharon Meredith

Electronically manipulated and extended music, usually remixes of existing reggae recordings. Dub was pioneered in Jamaica in the late 1960s, widely acknowledged to have been created by King Tubby The first dub versions were popular reggae songs with vocals removed to emphasize the drum and bass to which a DJ could add vocals a form of commentary known as toasting making much use of alliteration and rhyme These were specifically intended to be played by DJs on sound systems at dances and other social events Advances in sound engineering facilitated experimentation and the ability to remix the music in numerous ways increasing the popularity of dub versions so much so that it became common for a dub version to be issued as the B side to a 45 single record The evolution of 16 and 24 track recording led to further developments as sound engineers sought to enhance or ...


Jonathan Morley

A genre popularized in the 1970s, the seminal texts of which are ‘Dis poem’ by Mutabaruka, ‘The mad woman's poem’ by Jean ‘Binta’ Breeze, ‘Roots’ and ‘Mi cyaan believe it’ by Mikey Smith, and the 1970s and 1980s output, textual and musical, of Linton Kwesi Johnson.

Dub poetry was largely associated with Jamaican writers and had its antecedents in the dialect poems of Claude McKay and Louise Bennett, its theoretical logic in Kamau Brathwaite's assertion in Nation Language (1984) that ‘the hurricane does not roar in pentameters’. Johnson originally coined the term to describe Jamaican ‘toasting’, where poems are performed to the accompaniment of reggae music; Mervyn Morris was central in promoting the genre, editing the collections of Breeze and Smith.

Its Caribbean roots sprouted when the Guyanese academic Walter Rodney was forbidden to return to Jamaica where he taught at Mona ...


Elsie A. Okobi

Ibo novelist, was born on 26 September 1921 in Minna, northern Nigeria (Niger State), to Ogbuefi David Anadumaka Ekwensi and Agnes Uso Ekwensi, who were from Nkwelle in eastern Nigeria (Anambra State). Ekwensi’s father was an elephant hunter and a great storyteller; from him, Ekwenski learned the Ibo folklore that would later enrich his stories. Ekwensi grew up among Fulani children, learning to speak Hausa, in addition to Ibo, which was spoken at home. He was known to have married at least twice: Eunice Anyiwa in 1952, with whom he had five children, and Maria in 1969.

Ekwensi was sent to Government College in Ibadan in Yorubaland where he absorbed the Yoruba culture and language He continued his studies at Achimota College Ghana then at Yaba High College Lagos and he studied forestry at the School of Forestry Ibadan He worked in the forestry department at Ibadan from ...