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Rosemary Elizabeth Galli

nationalist, journalist and indigenous rights advocate, was born in Magul, Mozambique, on 2 November 1876. His father, Francisco Albasini, married the granddaughter of the head of Maxacuene clan in the Portuguese colony’s capital; her name is not recorded. João dos Santos was also known by his Ronga nickname, Wadzinguele. His grandfather João Albasini, a Portuguese trader, later established himself and a second family in the republic of the Transvaal where he became the vice-consul of Portugal. João dos Santos Albasini received a limited education at the Catholic Mission of Saint José Lhenguene; secondary education was not available in Mozambique. However, he was a keen reader especially of political tracts and gained great facility in writing both Portuguese and Ronga. Sometime around 1897 Albasini married Bertha Carolina Heitor Mwatilo but the marriage was unhappy and they divorced in 1917. They had two children.

As Albasini reached adulthood Portugal defeated ...


Richard A. Bradshaw

leader of Ubangi-Shari’s independence movement and “Father of the Central African Republic,” was born on 4 April 1910 at Bobangui, Lobaye. His father Swalakpé and mother Siribé both belonged to the Mbaka (Ngbaka) ethnic group. Swalakpé, a local leader with five wives, died before Boganda’s birth during an attack by colonial troops on his village. Siribé, the third of Swalakpé’s wives, was beaten to death by a soldier shortly after her husband’s death. An orphan, Boganda was taken into custody by the head of the French post at M’Baïki, Lieutenant Mayer, who entrusted him to the care of Father Gabriel Herriau of the Catholic mission at Bétou. In 1920 the Bétou mission was closed and Boganda was taken to the St. Paul mission in Bangui, where he attended primary school until 1924 While at St Paul s he was baptized adopted the name Barthélemy 24 December 1922 and was ...


Meghan Elisabeth Healy

British advocate for the Zulu kingdom and Anglican missionary, was born in Norfolk, England. She was the first of five children born to John William Colenso and Sarah Frances (Bunyon) Colenso, a couple whose universalistic Christian faith pushed them into repeated confrontations with ecclesiastical and colonial authorities.

In 1853 John Colenso was appointed the Anglican bishop of Natal, and in 1855 the Colensos established their home and mission station at Bishopstowe, near the colonial capital of Pietermaritzburg. Known as Ekukhanyeni (“the place of light” in Zulu), the Colensos’s mission station became a center of Christian schooling and evangelization in the colony. Ekukhanyeni also became a center of political agitation: Bishop Colenso advocated for the AmaHlubi Chief Langalibalele ka Mthimkhulu during the chief’s trial on charges of rebellion in 1874, and he supported the Zulu king Cetshwayo ka Mpande during and after the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879.

Bishop Colenso ...


María Cecilia Martino

was born on 4 December 1982, in the port city of Ensenada, located in the eastern part of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Ever since the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, there have been a large number of immigrants in Ensenada who came from different countries. This has included immigrants from the African islands of Cape Verde, who came to work in industries related to sailing, meat-curing, factory work, and meat processing.

Since 1927 the town of Ensenada de Barragán has been the headquarters of the premiere Cape Verde African society in the country, the Sociedad Cultural y Deportiva caboverdeana de Ensenada (The Cape Verde Cultural and Recreational Society of Ensenada, CVCRSE). Currently it is considered the oldest disaporic association on a global level.

Kalipolitis was born into an Argentine Cape Verdean family following the pattern established by other immigrants arriving in Argentina ...


Caitlyn Bolton

physician and rebel leader of the Justice and Equality Movement in Darfur, Sudan, was born in Tine near the Sudanese border with Chad. He belonged to the Kobe branch of the Zaghawa ethnic group (the Angu clan and Geyla sub-clan) and was a descendent of Zaghawa sultans on both sides of his family.

In the early 1980s Ibrahim studied medicine at the University of Gezira in central Sudan, where he was the leader of the Islamist student movement al-ʿittijah al-ʿislami (the Islamic Orientation), which was affiliated with the Sudanese Muslim Brothers. The Muslim Brothers, led by Dr. Hasan al-Turabi and recast as the National Islamic Front (NIF), covertly participated in the 1989 coup d’état that brought Brigadier ʿUmar al-Bashir into power. Ibrahim supported al-Bashir’s “Salvation Revolution” and was closely involved in the Islamist suppression of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army incursion into Darfur from the south in 1991 He ...


Rahal Boubrik

tribal leader and leader of resistance to French domination in Mauritania, was born on 10 February 1831 in the Hawd region, in present-day eastern Mauritania. His father was Muhammad Fadil, founder of the fadiliyya Sufi order. Until the age of 28, Maʾ al-ʿAynayn remained with his father, who was his only teacher in the esoteric and the exoteric. At the end of his education, his father gave him permission to undertake his first voyage. Maʾ al-ʿAynayn traveled to a number of holy places, including Mecca. Having returned from his pilgrimage, he began searching for a propitious place to settle down; and his choice became the Sagiya al-Hamraʾ region in what is today Western Sahara.

Maʾ al-ʿAynayn, who lived in a tent until the beginning of the 1880s, decided to found an urban center; and in 1888 he undertook the construction of the city of Smara which he wanted to ...


Nicole D. Price

Equatorial Guinean landowner, liberation activist of the Fang ethnic group, and hero of the independence movement, was born in Cameroon. Nothing is really known about his youth. Before his participation in the independence movement of Equatorial Guinea, Mañé Elá was known throughout the Río Muni region (the continental part of Equatorial Guinea) as a fairly wealthy landowner. Because of his status as an emancipado, or privileged African under Spanish colonial rule, Mañé Elá had very few restrictions placed upon him as far as travel and accumulation of wealth, both of which figured prominently in his role in the independence movement.

The independence movement in Spanish Guinea started to formally take shape in the late 1940s, when emancipados realized that even with their privileged status in colonial society, they would never have the same rights as the Spaniards. In 1947 a group of emanicipados, led by Marcos Ropo Uri ...


Charles Rosenberg

the first African American to graduate from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, sprang from a talented family with deep roots in the Methodist Episcopal and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) churches, free a generation before the Civil War. Mossell spent a good part of his adult life in Cardiff, Wales, after a sojourn in South Africa.

The youngest son of Aaron Albert Mossell and Eliza Bowers Mossell, Mossell was born in Canada, where his father owned a brickyard in Hamilton, Ontario. The family had moved there from Maryland due to limited educational opportunities and social restrictions on free people of African descent, although his grandmother, Mrs. Catherine Mossell, remained a life-long member of Baltimore's Sharp Street United Methodist Church until her death in 1891. Before Mossell's second birthday, the family moved again, to Lockport, New York, where he grew up.

Like his older brothers, Charles Wesley Mossell ...


Agnes Leslie

the first woman to become a paramount chief in Botswana, was born in 1950, the first child of Paramount Chief Kgosi Mokgosi III. “Mosadi,” which translates as “woman” in Setswana, was born in Ramotswa, a village about twenty miles (32 kilometers) south of the capital city, Gaborone. Ramotswa is also the capital of the Balete or Bamalete, ethnic group. She had seven sisters and one brother. Her father died in 1966, and after that a paternal uncle served as a regent for her brother, who was nine years her junior. Seboko attended Moedin College in Otse Village, south of Gaborone, and obtained the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate in 1969. She started working as soon as she finished high school in order to help her mother with her siblings when her father died. She pursued a career in banking for twenty-four years, joining Barclays Bank in 1971 ...


Mohammed Hassen Ali

Ethiopian military officer of Oromo origin, was born in Salale, Shewa province, to a deeply religious family. He received Ethiopian Orthodox Church education. His father, Birru, was killed by poison gas while fighting against the invading Italian forces in 1935. Heartbroken, Taddese’s mother died just three months after her husband’s death.

Taddese joined his uncle, Beka, who was one of the resistance leaders in Shewa province. Taddese was captured together with many others by the Italian forces and was sentenced for the first time to life imprisonment with hard labor in Mogadisho. The outbreak of World War II shortened Taddese’s misery and changed the course of his life. When the British captured Mogadisho in 1940, Taddese was freed and recruited into the British forces. He was given military training in Kenya and returned to Ethiopia in 1941. In 1942 Taddese was promoted to the rank of ...


Rwandan politician, was born on 3 September 1968 in Rwanda to a Hutu family. She attended primary and secondary schools in Rwanda. Little else is known about her early life before the civil war and genocide of the early 1990s. Umuhoza was visiting one of her cousins who was living at The Hague in the Netherlands at the outbreak of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. She learned by telephone from her husband that her brother and neighbors had been killed by militias. Her husband managed to evade attacks and fled to Goma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where Umuhoza was able to help her husband and some other family members to find sanctuary in the Netherlands.

They settled in Zevenhuizen a small town in southern Holland but initially faced difficulties there Her husband had been a veterinarian in Rwanda but his certification was not recognized in the Netherlands ...