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Robert Ross

Griqua leader and hunter in the region that is present-day South Africa, was born around 1770. During the second half of the eighteenth century, his family was one of several families of mixed Khoekhoe and Dutch descent who came to prominence in the dry lands of Namaqualand and along the Gariep River, on the northern frontier of the Cape Colony. Among them were two brothers, known variously as Claas and Piet Bastard or Claas and Piet Barends (sometimes spelled Berends). They first appear in the archival record in the 1760s accompanying Dutch and French expeditions to the Gariep and as overseers on the farms of the Van Reenen family who were then the Cape s most important butchers In time the family grew in wealth prominence and size primarily on the basis of hunting stock farming and trading to the Cape so that it was able to acquire ...


Alvin O. Thompson

Black slavery in the Caribbean was primarily an economic phenomenon although it had important political and social ramifications A large cheap docile labor force was the ideal the Europeans sought for their sugar coffee cocoa cotton and other tropical plantations The sparsity of the indigenous Caribbean populations in most of the islands at the time of the European arrival and their subsequent decimation by inhuman treatment and epidemic diseases introduced from Europe and Africa led to a critical shortage of labor for the new European plantations The geographical location of Africa and the collaboration of the African ruling classes with the European purveyors of the slave trade ensured continuous supply of slaves from that source Over time the introduction of Africans radically changed the demographic economic social and cultural landscape of the Caribbean Peoples of African descent today constitute the largest population groups in most of the islands and are ...


The Caribbean region is more often stereotyped and dismissed in Britain than taken seriously as a location for art production, and has only ever reached small audiences, despite some significant exhibitions and critical attention.

1.Images and objects collected from the Caribbean during the colonial period

2.Migration of artists during the 20th century

3.Art reception in the 1960s and 1970s

4.Exhibitions of the 1980s and 1990s

5.Curatorial selection and its consequences

There is little consensus on what defines a coherent category of Caribbean art in terms of its geographical boundaries and cultural character and given its growing diaspora The region s Anglophone countries have contributed the most to art exhibitions staged in the United Kingdom the consequence of a shared colonial history and of migration Throughout the post Second World War period many artists from the Caribbean engaged in struggles for acceptance within the history of ...


Alice Ross and Mark H. Zanger

The Caribbean influence on American food has been continual for hundreds of years, initially in coastal areas of similar climate, from Texas to the Carolinas. The early Spanish involvement in the Caribbean brought Caribbean foods to Europe and Africa, from whence they quickly returned to North America. Spanish gold shipments attracted other Europeans to the area and brought about the colonization of eastern North America. Cheap Caribbean sugar, coffee, cocoa, and spices have influenced the palates and tables of all Americans. The peoples of the Caribbean islands have developed multicultural cuisines that have been affecting American cooking at all levels since colonial times.

Influence of the Caribbean on contemporary American food may predate Columbus, because there is some possibility that Caribbean Indians reached Florida and introduced tropical tubers, or chilies. The chain of influence began in 1492 as the varieties of maize beans chilies squash peanuts and cassava collected ...


‘Our hammock slung between the Americas’ is how Derek Walcott described the Caribbean, and inspection of a map of the region provides visual evidence for his words. To the west, the large islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico extend from the American mainland. To the east, northward from Venezuela we find Trinidad and Tobago; Barbados, a sedimentary deposit; Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, and St Kitts (British), Martinique and Guadeloupe (French), forming the volcanic rim of the eastern Caribbean Sea; and further north, islands such as Anguilla, Barbuda, and Antigua cast leeward into the Atlantic. The map's lower‐right base is anchored in the massive territories of Guyana (British), Suriname (Dutch), and French Guiana, themselves dwarfed by Brazil.

1.Early contact

2.Entry of the British

3.The Anglo‐Dutch Wars

4.‘King Sugar’

5.Capitalism and slavery

6.‘The Williams thesis’

7.Problems of slave societies ...


Barry Higman

Slave populations were never truly separate from the free populations within which they existed. The number and proportion of persons in a society who lived as slaves depended on a variety of factors, some internal and some external to the enslaved population. Growth in slave populations resulted from the external processes of enslavement, forced migration, and changes in the status of individuals within societies, and from the internal process of fertility (although some of the fathers of slave children were free persons). Population decrease resulted from changes in the status of the enslaved class at large—abolition and partial abolition—or in the status of individual slaves (through manumission, coartación or maroonage from forced migration and from mortality These events and processes linked enslaved and free people in complex ways In some cases slaves were able to exercise a degree of control over the demographic events whether by acts of resistance ...



Robert Baum

The Dinka people, who number approximately 1.5 million (though estimates vary), are divided into twenty-five subgroups, each of which has its own name. Each once occupied a distinct territory. Each group is further subdivided into a number of lineages based on patrilineal descent (descent through the father’s line). The groups were led politically by a chief from a dominant lineage within the group, but his authority depended on general consensus and the cooperation of individuals. The religious authority of each group’s spear master (chosen from a second prominent lineage) complemented the primarily secular power of the chiefs. The spear master represented the power of tradition and the authority of the ancestors. Like their Nuer neighbors, the Dinka derived their livelihood mainly from cattle raising, though the cultivation of millet, fishing, and hunting were important supplemental activities.

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the Dinka expanded their control over southern Sudan ...


Ethnicity and race have been less troubling military questions for the United States than for nations where ethnic and racial competition, political power struggles, or caste systems have had a military dimension. Nonetheless, both factors have created military dilemmas for Americans from the earliest colonial settlements. Before the Revolutionary War, many white colonists, who considered blacks biologically and culturally inferior and poor material for soldiers, were also afraid of arming slaves and free blacks and of losing their labor services. Sometimes blacks were excluded from the colonial militias, particularly in the South, but military need could overshadow racial fear, such as during the French and Indian War. Some slaves were even granted their freedom for wartime military service.

Ethnocentrism suspicion of loyalties and loss of labor also militated against the military use of some non English immigrants but the need for frontier defense in the eighteenth century contributed to the ...



Marcy S. Sacks

The black presence in New York City dates back to the earliest years of Dutch colonization in the early seventeenth century. Over the generations, as the population of Manhattan increased in size, the once relatively scattered black population gradually became more concentrated within fewer geographic regions of the city. The 1800s witnessed the beginning of an uptown march, as the black population that had been centered in the working-class district of Five Points on the lower tip of the island early in the century faced residential pressures, leading it to shift its hub into modern-day Greenwich Village, then to an area known as the Tenderloin situated approximately between Twentieth and Fortieth streets. Though racial prejudice limited their housing options, black New Yorkers in the nineteenth century nevertheless lived in fairly heterogeneous working-class communities alongside ethnic whites.

The turn of the twentieth century however witnessed a precipitous growth in the black ...


Dierk Lange

ruler of the western African kingdom of Bornu (also Borno, Bornou) (c. 1487–1509), is most known for having launched two military campaigns against the Bulala in view of the reconquest of Kanem, the ancient homeland of the Sefuwa. In consequence of the destruction of the Mune shrine by Dunama Dibbalemi (1203–1242), oppositional Duguwa groups had progressively reinforced their position in Bornu’s neighbor Kanem, the central province of the Sefuwa Empire. It would seem that the Bulala had split off from the Duguwa ruling group, which strove for the restitution of the former corporate state symbolized by the Mune shrine. They reinforced their position in the region of Fitri, southeast of Kanem, until they were finally strong enough to force the Sefuwa court to abandon their ancient capi tal, Njimi, and to retreat to Bornu c. 1380 During their first period in Bornu the Sefuwa were weakened by dynastic rivalry ...


John Thornton

The Imabangala, a militant sect that emerged in the late sixteenth century, was responsible for considerable social disruption throughout the region that is present-day Angola. The term kimbangala (singular form Imbangala) is of uncertain origin, but possibly refers to the walled enclosure of their military camps. According to the earliest accounts, Imbangala originated in the kingdom of Bembe, an important but little known state in modern-day Bié Province in Angola. When first encountered by Europeans around 1600, the Imbangala were engaged in constant raiding and warfare—several armed bands, possibly with little connection among them save a recognition of a similar lifestyle, that lived primarily by what they could capture.

Imbangala raided communities harvesting crops and depleting palm groves to make palm wine They killed wantonly but took adolescent children into their bands to increase their numbers According to tradition the Imbangala did not permit babies among their numbers and ...


Immigration has been part of U.S. history from the country's beginnings. In fact, the Declaration of Independence included the imputation that George III was “obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners [and] refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither.” Until 1875 or so the United States had an open-door policy that welcomed immigrants without any restrictions. Federal and state governments, as well as private employers, even encouraged immigration, and they found, for instance, German and Irish laborers to build canals and railroads in the United States. By the 1840s, one-third of regular soldiers in federal and state militias were also immigrants.

Race in its changing definition and significance has been a central element in immigration policy and experience throughout U S history The Founding Fathers contradistinguished themselves from Europeans as a republican people committed to liberty equality and self government but they did so while excluding women ...


Before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean islands in 1492, several indigenous peoples lived in the region. Although there is some disagreement as to how and when they settled in the islands, most scholars agree that evidence exists of an indigenous presence that dates back more than 20,000 years. The two largest groups were the Taino and Carib. They shared similar cultural practices, and both groups spoke a Native American language called Arawak.

The arrival of Europeans in the late 1400s dramatically altered the lives of these indigenous communities. Many died of diseases that were carried across the Atlantic by European sailors. Others were killed in violent disputes with European settlers. The fate of these indigenous communities provides a lens through which we can view the long history of domination and exploitation by European powers in the region.


David C. Conrad

credited in oral tradition with founding of the West African Bamana Segou kingdom, was known as “Mamari” in his youth and as “Biton” when he ruled Segou. In oral tradition the names are used interchangeably. According to legend, Biton was a descendant of Kalajan Kulubali (c. 1652–1672), father of Nya Ngolo and Barama Ngolo of Sonsanna on the Bani River. Nya, through his son Sonsan and grandson Massa, engendered the “Massasi” Kulubali line that established the Kingdom of Kaarta, and Barama founded Biton’s line of the Kulubali that settled in Segou.

Mamari Biton established his power by reorganizing an independent, nonexclusive men’s association called a tòn that functioned as a kind of cooperative with members from all levels of society who profited from their own hunting and farming productivity According to oral tradition Biton s mother contributed to the founding of a system of taxation that was adopted and ...


Beatriz Rivera-Barnes

Since the late 1980s the term “Latino” has been used to describe all people residing in the United States who are of Latin American, Central American, or Spanish-speaking Caribbean descent, regardless of country of origin, ethnic origin, or race. In the early twenty-first century this term was beginning to supplant the term “Hispanic,” which also has been used to describe this group. Latinos in the United States can therefore be white, mestizo, Mayan, Aztec, black, mulatto, Peruvian, Bolivian, Venezuelan, and so on.

There has been a misconception about using the terms “black” and “Latino” together. The journalist and lecturer Roberto Santiago writes that for many years he was told there was no way that he could be black and Puerto Rican at the same time and that such a statement still perplexes him As a black Latino he has been shaped by his black and Latino heritages and he ...



Richard Price

The man who was to become the first African-American maroon arrived on the first slave ship to reach the Americas, within a decade of Columbus's landfall; one of the last maroons to escape from slavery was still alive in Cuba in the 1970s. For more than four centuries the communities formed by escaped slaves dotted the fringes of plantation America, from Brazil to the southeastern United States and from Peru to the American Southwest. Known variously as palenques, quilombos, mocambos, cumbes, mambises, or ladeiras these new societies ranged from tiny bands that survived less than a year to powerful states with thousands of members that survived for generations or even centuries Today their descendants still form semi independent enclaves in several parts of the hemisphere for example in Suriname French Guiana Jamaica Colombia and Belize remaining fiercely proud of their maroon origins and in some cases at least ...


James Bartholomew

Minority religious or racial groups in a country or region have often experienced greater difficulty than the majority in cultivating natural knowledge and receiving recognition for their work. Sometimes, as with Huguenots in seventeenth-century France, Quakers in eighteenth-century England, Jews in nineteenth-century Germany, and Asians in twentieth-century America, minorities have done well despite, and in different measures because of, prejudice that allowed them to develop strengths favorable for scientific work. Though not a minority in the general population, women have been severely underrepresented in the sciences owing to a spectrum of beliefs now unsustainable in the Western world: that women have no capacity for abstract thought, cannot raise children while performing other exacting jobs, cannot work outside the home without damaging it, and so on (See Women in Science).

The history of the position and opportunities of minorities in Europe and the United States has not tended uniformly toward improvement ...


Kathleen Sheldon

was a leader of the Tlokwa group of Sotho in South Africa and Lesotho during the mass migration in the early nineteenth century known as Difaqane. She was born in present-day Orange Free State, South Africa, daughter of a chief named Mothaha, around 1784; her name at birth was “Monyalue.” She married the Tlokwa chief Mokotjo, who was a cousin. She was given the name “Mmanthatisi,” indicating that she was the mother of a daughter named Nthatisi, after the birth of her first child, c. 1800. The couple had a son in 1804 named Sekonyela and a second son named Mota. When her husband died in 1813 (some sources say 1819 she held the position of regent for Sekonyela who later became chief She also had a daughter with her brother in law after Mokotjo s death as a consequence of the common practice of levirate ...



Peter Martin

The word ‘mulatto’ is derived from the Arabic muwallad, which originally referred to persons who were not ‘genuine’ Arabs, especially individuals born of black–white ‘misalliances’. With the beginning of the transatlantic African slave trade in the fifteenth century, the word mulatto first found its way into Portuguese, and then into almost all European languages, as the term for offspring of mixed European (Caucasian) and African (Negroid) parentage. (Only Afrikaans used the word ‘Bastard’ for such persons.)

The social position of these half breeds varied from place to place and over time On the sugar plantations of Latin America in several Caribbean colonies and in southern and western Africa where white masters faced an overwhelming number of black workers in bondage to them the mulatto and his or her descendants formed a buffer zone between blacks and whites that was indispensable for maintaining the authority and prosperity of the Europeans ...



Kathleen Sheldon and Jennifer Weir

royal figure best known as the mother of the Zulu leader Shaka, was probably born around 1760 in what is now South Africa. Historic accounts are scarce, and the story of her life is often romanticized through myth and fiction, making it difficult to relate a purely factual biography.

The first important event of Nandi s life according to what is known about her concerns her relationship with Shaka s father Senzangakhona ka Jama s 1757 1816 Nandi of the Langeni people had a relationship with Senzangakhona that resulted in the birth of Shaka The popular story has been that they were not married perhaps because they were considered to be too closely related Other reports suggested that she became pregnant before they were able to marry so that Shaka s birth was considered irregular This issue has weight because Shaka s illegitimate status was sometimes claimed to be a ...