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Madge Dresser

City in the south‐west of England whose importance to black history is firmly established by its long‐term involvement in the transatlantic slave economy, by its subsequent links to the North American anti‐slavery movement, and by the developments affecting its relatively small black population since the 1960s.

1.Bristol and the ...


Kathy Chater

Most work done on Black people and the law in the 18th century concentrates on the handful of cases in which the question of the legality of slavery in England and Wales was brought to court, most notably the Somerset case which led to the landmark Mansfield judgment Black ...


Annell Smith

As with other aspects of British society, black people have had a long and sometimes difficult and contentious relationship with the criminal justice system.

1.Historical background

2.The Empire Windrush and after


Ethnicity and race have been less troubling military questions for the United States than for nations where ethnic and racial competition, political power struggles, or caste systems have had a military dimension. Nonetheless, both factors have created military dilemmas for Americans from the earliest colonial settlements. Before the Revolutionary War, many white colonists, who considered blacks biologically and culturally inferior and poor material for soldiers, were also afraid of arming slaves and free blacks and of losing their labor services. Sometimes blacks were excluded from the colonial militias, particularly in the South, but military need could overshadow racial fear, such as during the French and Indian War. Some slaves were even granted their freedom for wartime military service.

Ethnocentrism suspicion of loyalties and loss of labor also militated against the military use of some non English immigrants but the need for frontier defense in the eighteenth century contributed to the ...


Steven J. Niven

lieutenant‐governor of South Carolina and the leading nineteenth century African American freemason, was born in Philadelphia to parents whose names have not been recorded. His father was a free person of color from Haiti and his mother was a white Englishwoman. Gleaves was educated in Philadelphia and New Orleans, and as a young man worked as a steward on steamboats along the Mississippi River.

Gleaves first came to prominence as an organizer of Masonic lodges in Pennsylvania and Ohio. While black freemasonry had gained a foothold under Prince Hall in Massachusetts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, by the 1840s, Pennsylvania was the center of black fraternalism, and Gleaves would become one of the Order's leading evangelists before the Civil War. In 1846 the year he was first initiated as a brother mason the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masons appointed Gleaves a District Deputy Grand ...

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By the eighteenth century indentured servants outnumbered African slaves in the North American colonies Unlike the situation endured by slaves however the indentured servitude was not permanent Initially an attempt to alleviate severe labor shortages in the New World settlements and to encourage emigration England s rapid population growth was becoming an increasingly worrisome economic burden the system of indenture comprised not only willing English women children and men but also convicts religious separatists and political prisoners At some points more than half of those bound for the colonies did so as the temporary legal property of a master Indentured servants labored a set number of years usually four to seven though the period for convicts could be considerably longer during which time they were considered by law the personal property of their masters Couples were often prevented from marrying and women from having children If a woman did become ...



Humayun Ansari

Britons had knowledge of Islam almost from its inception in the 7th century primarily because of the major Muslim incursions into Europe which brought Arabs as close to England as Poitiers in France in 732 References to the religion of the Saracens date from the Anglo Saxon period The English ...


Beatriz Rivera-Barnes

Since the late 1980s the term “Latino” has been used to describe all people residing in the United States who are of Latin American, Central American, or Spanish-speaking Caribbean descent, regardless of country of origin, ethnic origin, or race. In the early twenty-first century this term was beginning to supplant the term “Hispanic,” which also has been used to describe this group. Latinos in the United States can therefore be white, mestizo, Mayan, Aztec, black, mulatto, Peruvian, Bolivian, Venezuelan, and so on.

There has been a misconception about using the terms “black” and “Latino” together. The journalist and lecturer Roberto Santiago writes that for many years he was told there was no way that he could be black and Puerto Rican at the same time and that such a statement still perplexes him As a black Latino he has been shaped by his black and Latino heritages and he ...


Angela Leonard

One way to understand how a nation lives with its past and present is by locating monuments and memorials markers and places that commemorate historic events celebrate achievements of individuals help the bereaved remember and mourn the dead give meaning to the past and locate the presence of groups who ...


Don J. Wyatt

The precise date for the appearance of the first Africans in China is likely to forever remain elusive but, whereas entry overland remains plausible, the footing is probably surer in electing to credit that occasion to the Indian Ocean slave trade. According to historian Gwyn Campbell (2008), this seaward trade in Africans as slaves stretched back some four millennia. Yet, before the seventh century of the Common Era, enslavement of Africans was an enterprise in which only the littoral countries of the western portion of the Indian Ocean had tended to engage, owing to their proximity to the lands along the East African coastline, which collectively served as the principal source of supply. Gradually, however, often through the process of transshipment and under a succession of Persian, Arab, and European enslavers, Africans were increasingly ferried to locales farther east and eventually on to China.

The earliest designation that ...


C. Morgan Grefe

Rhode Island was the center of North America's African slave trade. In the eighteenth century, Rhode Island had one of the highest percentages of people of African descent in New England. By the time of the American Revolution, African Americans made up nearly 12 percent of the colony's total population. The number of African American residents continued to grow, but at a drastically slower rate than that of European Americans. Thus by 1890, Rhode Island's African American population was proportionally quite small—about 2 percent of the total population.

In the early twentieth century Providence s African American community primarily included descendants of seventeenth or eighteenth century arrivals African American enclaves developed in South Providence in West Elmwood and on the East Side though urban renewal destroyed much of these neighborhoods by the mid 1960s Cities such as East Providence and rural areas such as Westerly and Little Compton also ...


David Richardson

There is no consensus among historians about the definition of a slave society but if the ratio of slaves to total population is seen as an important element of such a definition some slave owning societies historically have more claim than others to be labeled as slave societies It is probable that in many if not most slave owning societies those owned by others comprised only a small fraction maybe 10 percent or less of the total population In some cases however the ratio of slaves to total population was higher though still less than half while in a small proportion of cases slaves comprised a majority of the population The geographical distribution of slave ownership across societies therefore has invariably been highly uneven In the modern world slavery has been particularly identified with Africa and the Americas though it has been prevalent in other continents notably Asia Although evidence ...