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Cathy Rodabaugh

The Burned-Over District was a region of Upstate New York significant to American social and religious history in the first half of the nineteenth century. Beginning around 1790, New Englanders moved west, bringing a culture that embraced religious enthusiasm to the fertile New York farmlands beyond the Catskill and Adirondack mountains. The agrarian villages and small cities populated by the migrants also reflected a traditional Puritan concern for morality and community values. Religious innovations and social movements nurtured in the district influenced the course of American progress well beyond the district's geographical and chronological boundaries.

Named for the intense fires of religious enthusiasm that erupted there regularly the Burned Over District was a national center for the series of revivals marking the Second Great Awakening which occurred in the early decades of the nineteenth century Mass conversions and social change characterized the venues of the revivals typically in rural ...


Linda M. Carter

missionary and founding father of the state of Liberia, was born in Hicksford, Greensville County, Virginia, the elder son of John Day Sr., an affluent furniture maker, farmer, and landowner, and Mourning Stewart Day. The Days were free African Americans, and Day's father, as early as the 1789 election, was accorded voting status.

In an era when formal education for African Americans was rare, Day reaped the benefits of being the offspring of two prominent families. His father arranged for him to board in Edward Whitehorne's home, and Day, along with the Whitehorne children, attended Jonathan Bailey's school. While residing with the family, Day received some level of religious instruction from Whitehorne. In 1807 Day's father, who had been residing in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, purchased a plantation in Sussex County, Virginia, near the Whitehorne residence, and Day then attended William Northcross's school.

At the age of nineteen ...


Frederick Douglass visited England as part of two trips to the United Kingdom, speaking against slavery and encouraging abolitionism for eighteen months from 1845 to 1847 and for six months from 1859 to 1860. On both occasions Douglass benefited from being outside the United States. The first visit coincided with the publication of his Narrative, which revealed details of his life that would have enabled the Auld family to find and re-enslave the runaway. The second visit was made shortly after John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, when Douglass was implicated as an accomplice in planning the raid and a warrant was issued for his arrest.

Douglass landed in Liverpool on 28 August 1845 with James Buffum, an abolitionist from Lynn, Massachusetts; because of racial prejudice, they had been consigned to steerage class on the steamer Cambria Acting as a lecturing agent for the Massachusetts ...


David Killingray

Black BritishWesleyan missionary and traveller in West Africa. Freeman was born in Hampshire, the child of a black father and a white mother. Little is known of his early years, but he was employed as a gardener in Suffolk and became a Christian, joining the Wesleyan Methodists. In 1838 Freeman went as a missionary to the Gold Coast, an area of West Africa where he was to spend most of his life. He built Methodist churches at Cape Coast and Accra, promoted education, and trained local men for the ministry. He established a mission station in Kumase, the Asante capital, and visited towns in southern Nigeria and also the kingdom of Dahomey, where he urged King Gezo to stop the slave trade. On furlough in Britain in 1843 Freeman actively promoted missionary work and also the anti‐slavery cause, both helped by publication of his travel accounts. In 1847 ...


Frederick Douglass's relationship with Ireland began, albeit tentatively, at the age of twelve when he read Caleb Bingham's Columbian Orator (1737), a collection of speeches. The book included excerpts from Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the Irish playwright and politician. Douglass later wrote in his first autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, that from Sheridan he discovered "a bold denunciation of slavery and a powerful vindication of human rights."

Later, as an escaped slave and rising orator himself, Douglass made one of his first major speeches in Boston's Faneuil Hall in January 1841. The occasion was the presentation of the "Great Irish Address," a petition with the signatures of sixty thousand Irish people urging Irish Americans to oppose slavery. The address had been instigated by the Irish lawyer and politician Daniel O'Connell who was a lifelong opponent of slavery as well as ...


Frederick Douglass spent time in Scotland on two occasions as part of broader antislavery lecture tours around Britain and Ireland. In fact, for much of his first trip, which lasted eighteen months, Douglas was in Scotland. Landing in Liverpool in August 1845 and leaving in April 1847, he stayed in Scotland for the first half of 1846 and returned in July, September, and October of that year. His second visit to Scotland in 1860 was not only shorter but also less significant to Douglass's aboltionist cause than was his first.

Douglass was very well received in Scotland, a hotbed for many of the more radical antislavery campaigners in Britain. The Edinburgh and Glasgow emancipation societies, formed in 1833 provided strong forthright leadership on abolition as well as issues of women s rights to which Douglass was increasingly receptive in that period His interest led to his attendance at ...