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Article

Asia  

James F. Warren and Utsa Patnaik

[This entry comprises two articles: a general description of slavery and other forms of servitude in the Indian subcontinent, followed by a detailed discussion of these practices throughout Southeast Asia and its environs. For discussion of slavery in East Asia,see ChinaandKorea.]

Article

David P. Johnson

Asmara is located in a highland region of Eritrea that was settled roughly 700 years ago. It is believed to have been the site of four small, feuding villages, which, under pressure from the villages’ women inhabitants, finally made peace and united around 1515. The name Asmara comes from Arbate Asmara, which in the Tigrinya language means “the four villages of those [women] who brought harmony.” Sixteenth-century Italian sources describe Asmara as a caravan trading center.

Shortly afterward Asmara was sacked by Islamic warriors and went into decline. Few historical records even mention Asmara again until the late nineteenth century, when the Italians began their colonial conquest of the region. After occupying Aseb in 1882 and Massawa in 1885, the Italians pushed into the highlands, where they encountered resistance. However, in exchange for weapons Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II signed a treaty in 1889 acquiescing to Italian control ...

Article

Elizabeth Heath

The administrative, economic, and cultural center of Mali, Bamako lies on the left bank of the Niger River in the southwestern part of the country. Little is known about Bamako before the eleventh century, when it achieved prominence as a center of Islamic scholarship in the Mali empire. After the fall of Mali in the sixteenth century, the Bambara occupied the town, which became a fishing and trading center. In 1806 Scottish explorer Mungo Park estimated Bamako’s population to be less than 6,000. By 1880 the town had fallen under the domination of the Mandinka warrior Samory Touré, whose kingdom covered an expanse of territory to the south.

In 1883 French Lieutenant Colonel Gustave Borgnis Desbordes occupied Bamako and used it as a base for military campaigns against Touré Bamako took on new importance under the French who valued the town s position on the navigable ...

Article

Susanne Freidberg

The city of Bobo-Dioulasso is located in one of the greener areas of Burkina Faso, and has long benefited from the fertility of the surrounding countryside. According to the legends of the Bobo people, their ancestors migrated from present-day Mali sometime between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries c.e.. and became the first inhabitants of what Bobo folk songs call “the plateau of abundance” in the southern Volta region. Over the following centuries, long-distance traders settled among the Bobo peasants on this plateau and established a community known as Sya on the banks of the Houet River. Located at the crossroads of trans-Saharan and east-west trade routes, Sya was a lively market town by the time European colonization began in the late nineteenth century. French troops, facing fierce resistance from Sya’s Zara warriors, conquered the town in 1895 They renamed it Bobo Dioulasso in Dioula house of the ...

Article

O. Nigel Bolland

Indigenous forms of servitude in Central America preceded the Spanish conquest, but, oppressive and widespread as they were, they should not be equated with the institution of slavery introduced by Europeans between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. As opposed to earlier slavery systems, enslavement of indigenous Indians and then of Africans by Spanish and British settlers reflected demands for labor within the culture of capitalist property rights in the developing economies of the Atlantic world. The peripheral nature of the Central American colonies in the Spanish and British empires led first to the massive export of enslaved Indians, and then to the importation of enslaved Africans into the region; the latter was relatively minor in comparison with importations to other parts of the Americas. The net result was a depopulation of Central America that contributed to the region's persistent underdevelopment.

Servitude existed during the Classic period of Maya civilization ...

Article

China  

James L. Watson

Prior to the communist collectivization campaigns of the 1950s, China had an exceedingly complex system of social stratification marked by regional cultural variation and a rural-urban dichotomy. Localized forms of slavery existed in many provinces, as did systems of hereditary tenancy and debt bondage.

The best-documented cases of chattel slavery were found in southern China, notably in the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian. Two closely related forms of servitude emerged in this region, one male-specific and the other restricted to women. Most of these servile dependents were status symbols, treated much like investments in imperial degrees, stately homes, and ostentatious rituals.

Servile males were referred to as ximin literally little people or minor people they were usually purchased as adolescents from poor families who had an excess of male heirs Wealthy purchasers used intermediaries older women who also served as matchmakers to negotiate the exchange thus keeping the identities ...

Article

Linda M. Carter

missionary and founding father of the state of Liberia, was born in Hicksford, Greensville County, Virginia, the elder son of John Day Sr., an affluent furniture maker, farmer, and landowner, and Mourning Stewart Day. The Days were free African Americans, and Day's father, as early as the 1789 election, was accorded voting status.

In an era when formal education for African Americans was rare, Day reaped the benefits of being the offspring of two prominent families. His father arranged for him to board in Edward Whitehorne's home, and Day, along with the Whitehorne children, attended Jonathan Bailey's school. While residing with the family, Day received some level of religious instruction from Whitehorne. In 1807 Day's father, who had been residing in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, purchased a plantation in Sussex County, Virginia, near the Whitehorne residence, and Day then attended William Northcross's school.

At the age of nineteen ...

Article

Lake Edward, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, has an area of about 2,150 square kilometers (about 830 square miles) and lies 912 meters (2,990 feet) above sea level. It is connected on the northeast with Lake George (or Lake Dweru) in Uganda, by means of the Kazinga Channel. Lake Edward is fed by the Rutshuru River, a headstream of the White Nile. The lake has only one outlet, the Semliki River, which links it with Lake Albert to the north. High escarpments run along the western shore of the lake and mountains rise on the northwestern shore. The water is brackish with mineral salts. Many fish and crocodiles live in the lake, and waterfowl abound on its shores. The Anglo-American explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley discovered the lake in 1889. The lake was formerly called Albert Edward Nyanza.

See alsoGeomorphology, African ...

Article

The origins of ancient Egyptian civilization, which many regard as one of the fountainheads of Western culture, cannot be established with certainty. Archaeological evidence suggests that early dwellers in the Nile Valley were influenced both by the cultures of the Middle East and by surrounding African cultures. Describing the development of Egyptian civilization, like attempts to identify its intellectual foundations, is largely a process of conjecture based on archaeological discoveries of enduring ruins, tombs, and monuments, many of which contain invaluable specimens of the ancient culture. Inscriptions in hieroglyphs, for instance, have provided priceless data.

The framework for the study of the Dynastic Period of Egyptian history, between the First Dynasty and the Ptolemaic period, relies on the Aegyptiaca of Manetho, a Ptolemaic priest of the third century b.c.e who organized the country s rulers into thirty dynasties roughly corresponding to families General agreement exists on the division of ...

Article

Europe  

Keith Bradley and William D. Phillips

[This entry comprises two articles that trace the history of slavery and other forms of servitude in the Greco-Roman world and in medieval Europe.]

Article

Ancient Ghana was important in the ninth century c.e.. when it controlled the Wangara area (between the upper Niger and Senegal rivers), which produced great quantities of gold for trade across the Sahara. Slaves were also traded with the gold, in return for salt from Teghaza in the desert and cloth from North Africa.

In the eleventh century the kingdom of Ghana was described by the Islamic historian al Bakri c 1000 Raised in Muslim Spain al Bakri wrote historico geographical surveys of West African kingdoms and empires in Arabic albeit from a distance He never traveled south of the Sahara but instead contented himself with the reports of trans Saharan traders and explorers Nonetheless Ghana was at the apex of its power during the years al Bakri performed most of his investigations and it was he who claimed that it was so rich in gold that dogs ...

Article

At its height Great Zimbabwe dominated much of the present-day country of Zimbabwe. By the end of the fifteenth century the city had declined and had been all but abandoned. Today the stone ruins of Great Zimbabwe, located in south central Zimbabwe, make up a national monument.

Article

Korea  

Martina Deuchler

In the hierarchical structure of Korean society the “Basic people” (ch'ŏmin), the majority of whom were slaves (nobi), constituted the bottom layer. Although slavery in Korea is documented from earliest times, its origin is uncertain. Over time, various categories of people were enslaved: prisoners of war captured during the unification wars (sixth and seventh centuries ce) and their descendants, peasants uprooted during dynastic change, and criminals. It was also common for individuals to offer themselves for enslavement to escape dire poverty or to evade taxation. The slaves eventually formed a separate and homogeneous social class, membership in which became hereditary. Uncommon in the context of worldwide slavery is the fact that Korean slaves were ethnically indistinguishable from their enslavers.

Throughout history Korea's ruling class was a hereditary aristocracy (yangban) who dominated the two lower classes of commoners (p'yŏngmin and slaves Status ...

Article

Koumbi Saleh was the last capital of ancient Ghana (also known as Wagadu), a powerful and wealthy West African kingdom dominated by the Soninké people. The city’s archaeological remains lie 320 kilometers (200 miles) north of Bamako, Mali. Eleventh-century scholar Abu Ubaydalla al-Bakri wrote that the city consisted of two distinct towns: a Muslim town and a royal compound. Archaeologists have confirmed the existence of the much larger and denser Muslim town, covering 2.5 square kilometers (one square mile). Its wealthy Muslim traders prayed in the dozen mosques. A large main street twelve meters (forty feet) wide ran the length of this settlement. A distinct, Soninké-dominated royal compound, less well built, probably existed ten kilometers (six miles) from the main town. Approximately 15,000 to 20,000 people probably lived at Koumbi Saleh at its peak, when the town prospered from the sale of gold and slaves to trans-Saharan traders.

Sources ...

Article

William D. Phillips

Throughout the Middle Ages slavery persisted on all shores of the Mediterranean and in the regions linked with it even though it occupied a far less important position in society and in the economy than it had in Roman times From the end of the Roman Empire to the beginning of European expansion in the Atlantic slavery in the Christian world was reinforced by contact with the highly developed slavery of the Muslims In addition to the actual presence of slaves the influence of Roman law helped to shape the legal systems of the European West The persistence of slavery throughout the Middle Ages set the stage for colonial slavery in the Americas and thus influenced the evolution of modern society throughout the Western Hemisphere Despite major social and economic changes in the medieval west Roman slave laws and the writings of early Christian theologians continued to influence the practice ...

Article

Aaron Myers

Minas Gerais was a densely forested region sparsely inhabited by Tupi and Guarani Indians before the arrival of Europeans in the seventeenth century. At that time explorers and bandeirantes (slave raiders) moved inland from São Paulo in search of Indian slaves as well as precious stones and metals.

Article

Nubia  

Ali Osman Mohammad Salih

What was Nubia? This has always been a controversial question. The controversy stems from the difficulties determining the origin of the name Nubia, when Nubia first appeared in history, and its geographical limits. There is general agreement among most scholars that the name derives from nob, the Nubian word for gold, and is linked to the importance of gold to the Nubians.

However, recent research suggests other possibilities. The modern Nubian word kiji means “fertile land, dark gray mud, silt, or black land” the sound of this word is near to the Egyptian name Kish or Kush, referring to the land south of Egypt. It is believed that the name Kush also meant “the land of dark silt” or “the black land.” This was the Egyptian name for Nubia. But what did the Kushites call their land?

We know from modern and recent analogies that peoples do not always adopt ...

Article

Don J. Wyatt

The precise date for the appearance of the first Africans in China is likely to forever remain elusive but, whereas entry overland remains plausible, the footing is probably surer in electing to credit that occasion to the Indian Ocean slave trade. According to historian Gwyn Campbell (2008), this seaward trade in Africans as slaves stretched back some four millennia. Yet, before the seventh century of the Common Era, enslavement of Africans was an enterprise in which only the littoral countries of the western portion of the Indian Ocean had tended to engage, owing to their proximity to the lands along the East African coastline, which collectively served as the principal source of supply. Gradually, however, often through the process of transshipment and under a succession of Persian, Arab, and European enslavers, Africans were increasingly ferried to locales farther east and eventually on to China.

The earliest designation that ...

Article

David Dabydeen

Elizabethan and Jacobean drama saw the proliferation of African images, contexts, and characters. Contact between Britain and Africa, which began as early as the 14th century, became more prevalent in the 16th century and led to an interest in travel, discovery, and the dramatic representations of ‘Moors’. Before the publication of contemporary travel accounts by sailors and travellers, writers often used Scripture and philosophy to construct ideas of Africa and its people. In the 13th century Roger Bacon utilized this blend to fashion geographical knowledge of Africa. Similarly, Geoffrey Chaucer's interpretation of African contexts was an amalgamation of fact and fantasy. Writers of the 16th century, besides deriving knowledge from travellers' accounts, maintained travel tales of the ancients as one of their prime sources of notions about Africa.

In the second half of the 16th century numerous publications on Africa which ranged from histories to travelogues contributed to the escalating ...

Article

George Reid Andrews

Slavery did not exist on a large scale in South America until after the European conquest of the continent. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish and Portuguese, Native American chiefdoms and tribal societies held small numbers of war captives as slaves, and the Inca Empire included a hereditary class of unfree laborers, the yana or yanakuna, who worked as servants or agricultural workers for the nobility; however, the role of the yana in economic production was marginal compared to that of the peasant kinship units (ayllu) who held and worked land collectively. The position of the latter in Inca society was closer to that of serfs than slaves: they could not be bought or sold as individuals (there was thus no slave trade before the arrival of the Europeans) and remained tied to the estate on which they lived.

Spaniards arriving in the Andean region in ...