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Carmen Rosario

was born on 4 July 1897 in Bayamón, Puerto Rico, one of twelve children of José Celso Barbosa, among the most prominent Puerto Rican politicians of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and Belen Sanchez. Pilar received her primary and secondary education in her hometown, where early on she was immersed in politics. Her father, a black man who graduated first in his class at the University of Michigan, was a leader of the autonomist movement that demanded autonomy for Puerto Rico from the Spanish government at the end of the nineteenth century as well as the founder of the Partido Republicano (Republican Party) in 1899, which advocated statehood for Puerto Rico following the American invasion of the island the prior year. After graduating from high school, Pilar attended the University of Puerto Rico. While still an undergraduate, in 1921 she became the first woman and certainly ...


Arturo Victoriano

was born on 5 April 1961 in Río San Juan, Dominican Republic. She graduated cum laude in 1988 with a doctorate in law from the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (UASD), after which she pursued post-graduate studies in political science at UASD (its Santiago campus), graduating with a Post-Grado en Ciencias Políticas (equivalent to a one-year master’s degree) in 1994. She became a specialist in alternative conflict resolution. She is a former practicing attorney with an extended practice in the firms of Bonilla-Hernández (1989–1990), Centro Bonilla-Estrella (1990–1995), and Oficina Jurídica Díaz-Bonilla (1992–2002), serving various areas of the law, as is customary in the Dominican Republic. A longstanding member of the Partido de la Liberación Dominicana (PLD), she entered politics, becoming elected to the lower house of Congress (Chamber of Deputies) for the province of Santiago during the periods 1994–1998, 1998–2002 and ...


Cary D. Wintz

law enforcement officer, mayor, cabinet secretary, and professor. Lee Brown is best known as a high-profile law enforcement officer who held the position of chief of police or its equivalent in four major U.S. cities, served in President Bill Clinton's cabinet as drug czar, and was the first black mayor of Houston, Texas.

Lee Patrick Brown was born in Wewoka, Oklahoma, on 4 October 1937 to Andrew and Zelma Brown, who worked as farm laborers. When Brown was five the family moved to Fowler, California, about ten miles south of Fresno. As a child Brown often joined his parents in the fields, picking crops. But he also stayed in school, and he attended Fresno State University on a football scholarship, studying sociology and criminology.

In 1960 one semester before graduation Brown left college and took a job as a patrolman with the San Jose ...


John Herschel Barnhill

reform police commissioner and politician, was born in Wewoka, Oklahoma, the son of sharecroppers Andrew Brown and Zelma Brown. By the 1940s the Browns were in California, picking grapes, watermelon, and cotton. Lee worked the fields, but he was a high school athlete. An athletic scholarship to Fresno State University and a 1960 Fresno State B.S. in criminology enabled him to pursue police work. He became a San Jose police officer in 1960 even before graduation. In 1964–1965 he was head of the San Jose police union.

He received his M.A. in sociology from San Jose State University in 1964 and became an assistant professor there in 1968, the same year he earned his master's degree in criminology from the University of California, Berkeley. Brown moved to Portland State University in 1968 as chair of the Department of Administration of Justice He received his Ph D from ...


Wigmoore Francis

is known primarily for his advocacy on behalf of the black and colored population of Jamaica, for his resistance to Crown rule, and for his impact on constitutional reform in the late nineteenth century. Samuel was born in Kingston, Jamaica, to William Burke, a wealthy watchmaker, and Elizabeth Staines Burke, a housewife. William owned four residences in Kingston’s upscale districts, and together, he and Elizabeth produced ten children, all of whom were colored.

Burke who may have been born on Harbour Street near the Kingston waterfront grew up on Church Street in downtown Kingston at a transitional time when the residential areas there were being overrun by business operations Here the absence of clear lines of demarcation between business and residence and the physical proximity of poorer black families resulted in a motley demographic arrangement of class color and race From a young age Samuel would therefore have been exposed ...


Joseph Wilson and David Addams

a central figure in the civil rights and human rights movement in the United States as an activist, attorney, and scholar. Born in New York City in 1940, William Haywood Burns helped integrate the swimming pool in Peekskill, New York, at fifteen years of age and was a leader in the struggle for human rights and civil rights over the next four decades. He graduated from Harvard College in 1962. As a law student at Yale University, he participated in the 1964 Freedom Summer in Mississippi. He already had authored The Voices of Negro Protest (1963), which critiqued the leadership and mass character of the civil rights movement, and throughout his career he contributed chapters to other books. He was assistant counsel to the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund in the late 1960s. Later he served as general counsel to Martin Luther King Jr.'s ...


Patricia Glinton-Meicholas

was born Alfred Étienne Jerome Dupuch on 16 February 1899 in Nassau, The Bahamas. He was the third child of Leon Dupuch, a single-term member of the House of Assembly, and his wife Harriet, who died in 1909. In 1911 Leon married Ethelinda Pyfrom and another child, Eugene, joined Gilbert, Naomi, Etienne, and Evelyn.

It is important at the outset to examine Dupuch’s attitude toward race as a significant root of his social and political preoccupations. As he often pointed out, Dupuch’s great-grandfather Elias Dupuch was a white Frenchman who had migrated to The Bahamas in 1840 Photographs of two of Elias s sons including Gilbert Leon Dupuch s father suggest a mother of African descent as was Étienne s mother In Dupuch s books his paternal great grandmother and grandmother are not named or referenced Although he spoke lovingly of his mother he ignored her background It ...


Alejandro Gortázar

in the first half of the nineteenth century, was born on 15 October 1766 in Rio Grande de San Pedro, a city in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). His mother was Juana de Sacramento, a Benguela woman from Angola. His father was Ventura, a Mina Dajome man (from Dahomey, currently Republic of Benin). Molina was born on the ship that brought his family to Brazil to be sold as slaves. His parents married in 1765 in Rio Grande.

Molina’s parents were both personal servants to José de Molina (1707–1782), a Spanish military man who came in 1759 to Banda Oriental with the Cevallos expedition to delimitate the Spanish imperial territory in Banda Oriental. Ventura saved José de Molina’s life in 1765 and was rewarded his freedom in return but he preferred to remain with his master Juana his mother was enslaved in Portuguese territory and became a ...


Jeremy Rich

historian and an alleged proponent of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, was born to a middle-class family on 15 June 1950 in the Gatonde commune in the Rwandan province of Ruhengeri.

He attended primary schools in Rwanda and then completed his secondary education at the Rwesero Catholic seminary in 1971. Nahimana then moved to Butare, where he received his undergraduate degree in history from the National University of Rwanda. A passionate researcher of colonial history, Nahimana moved to Quebec, where he received a master’s degree in history from the Université de Laval. Nahimana returned to Rwanda in 1977 and began a seventeen-year career as a history professor at the National University of Rwanda. There he taught courses on African and European history. From 1978 to 1980 he served as vice doyen in the Faculty of Arts at the University and then was promoted to doyen in the 1980 ...


Francis Daniel Nina

was born on 29 December 1929 in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. After attending local public schools, he enrolled at the University of Puerto Rico, where he trained as a teacher. In the early 1960s, he received a fellowship to attend the prestigious London School of Economics, where he completed a master’s degree and a doctorate in sociology. After returning to Puerto Rico in the 1960s, he was hired as a professor in the Social Science Faculty of the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras campus.

Nieves Falcón is probably best known as the founder of the new sociology of Puerto Rico which was based on the writing of local intellectuals during the 1960s who proclaimed anticolonial views in their discourse and practice Heavily influenced by the philosophy of Karl Marx and Frantz Fanon Nieves Falcón developed a critical thinking approach to his writings and research which focused on the colonial question ...


Charles Rosenberg

minister and missionary supervisor of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, historian, founder of the Harriet Tubman Memorial Library, advocate for legal and sentencing reform, particularly concerning abuse of mandatory minimum sentencing, was born in Mocksville, Davie County North Carolina, the daughter of John Hairston and Ida D. Brown Goolsby.

Lula Mae Goolsby grew up in the Cedar Grove Baptist Church in Mocksville and graduated from Davie High School. She earned a Bachelor’s Degree in English from Bennett College in Greensboro, with a minor in Library Science, and taught school in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district. In 1961 she spent two weeks at the predominantly white Mt. Holyoke College in Massachusetts, as part of an exchange of students with Bennett, which was historically black. She married Rev. Milton A. Williams, a minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AME Zion) church 8 June 1963 as he finished his graduate study ...


Ginny Crosthwait

cofounder of Los Angeles's Crips gang, author, Nobel Prize nominee, and antigang activist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and moved to South Central Los Angeles in 1959, after his parents (names unknown) divorced. Gang rivalry was prevalent in the area, and Williams was intrigued by the thrilling stories he heard from older neighborhood boys who had served time in prison. As a teenager, he spent time in a variety of juvenile detention centers in California and Utah for drug use, fighting, and suspected burglary.

Back in South Central, Williams earned a reputation as an expert street fighter and, along with high school friend Raymond Lee Washington, founded the Crips in 1971 Although the Crips a derivative of crib was originally founded to protect and defend the members and their families from gang aggression it rapidly increased in membership and violent activity to rival the area s other ...