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Jonathan Walton

Black televangelism is a catchall category to describe a range of Protestant and predominantly evangelical ministries that utilize television and/or Webcasts as the primary means of Christian proselytization. This form of religious expression exploded in the final quarter of the twentieth century and propelled the cultural celebrity and spiritual authority of leading televangelists such as Bishop T. D. Jakes and Creflo and Taffi Dollar. Hollywood motion pictures, gospel stage plays, and bestselling publications are just a few of the outgrowths of this ministry form.

Greater inclusion of African American evangelists on white owned conservative Christian networks such as Pat Robertson s Christian Broadcasting Network and Paul and Jan Crouch s Trinity Broadcasting Network can account for in part the expanded opportunities and increased visibility of select African American evangelists Couple this with the expansion of cable networks catering to primarily African American audiences such as Black Entertainment Television and ...


Todd Steven Burroughs

In the late nineteenth century, black comedy was about to burst out of the shadows of minstrelsy that it had been forced into by whites. Born in Africa via folktales and verbal contests and raised in America, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century African American humor was created by several tensions: the relationship between the master and the slave, the folktales stressing trickery and mental skill, the stories that showed the superiority of the slave over the master, and the parodies of slave life. The creation of the minstrel shows had resulted in a struggle between whites attempting to control black humor and black minstrels attempting to subvert the degrading black stereotype, performing instead a pantomime that mocked the white audience by playing exaggeratedly to its expectations while at the same time injecting a strain of human dignity into the parts they played.

Bert Williams, who appeared in the Ziegfeld Follies ...


African American entertainment traditions were well established by 1890. The first black theater was the African Grove in New York, founded in 1821 and featuring Ira Aldridge, one of the finest actors of the day; both Shakespeare and comedies were performed. Destroyed by a white mob in 1823, the black actors there, and elsewhere, nevertheless continued to perform. Aldridge himself went to Europe for the last thirty years of his life. African American bands were highly prized by both whites and blacks for civic entertainments, the most famous of the early nineteenth century being that of Francis Johnson, who composed and performed the music for General Lafayette's return to Philadelphia in 1824. Blacks appeared both in their own minstrel shows and as performers with mostly white groups in the years after the Civil War.

Plays written and performed by African Americans began to appear in ...


Danielle Taana Smith

Black entrepreneurship has been important for the American economy from the 1600s, when the first Africans arrived in America.


Amy Sparks Kolker

journalist and educator, was born in Lexington, Kentucky, the only child of Margaret Smith, who raised her on her own. It is uncertain whether Smith was born into slavery. Though her mother and she were poor and struggled to make ends meet, Smith managed to get an education, and by the age of sixteen she had begun to support her mother and herself by working as a secretary to William James Simmons, the president of the State University of Louisville. Later, after she graduated from the Normal Department at the State University in 1887, she worked as a faculty member.

Through her connection to Simmons, Smith also began working as a journalist. Simmons was an editor of the American Baptist, a newspaper owned by black Baptists, and in 1884 Smith began writing The Children s Column for the publication When Simmons became the ...


Angela M. Nelson

The nineteenth century was a pivotal time in the initial development and dissemination of African American images into recognizable recurring stereotypes These stereotypes took on the form of personas with a predictable appearance expressing predictable thoughts and words and embodying predictable behaviors and actions Nineteenth century cultural artifacts that introduced these stereotypes include the minstrel show novels poetry plays autobiographies and memoirs nonfiction books advertising magazine and newspaper articles comic art and sheet music Of these cultural products minstrel shows and the works of southern novelists dramatists and journalists were the most influential in the creation and reflection of public attitudes toward free and enslaved Africans The six stereotypes whites used most frequently in minstrel shows and literature to depict or describe enslaved and free African Americans during the nineteenth century were Sambo also manifested as Zip Coon Jim Crow Uncle Mose and Uncle Tom Nat Mammy Jezebel Tragic Mulatto ...


Lisa E. Rivo

actress, was born Nellie (last name unknown) in Louisville, Kentucky, to Cleo de Londa and Silas Crawford Wan, a native of Hawaii who died when his daughter was young. Nellie's mother was a washerwoman whose clients included several local actresses from whom Nellie caught the acting bug. Her first performing work was in an all-black novelty act at the Buckingham Theater and New Brunswick Saloon, a high-end vaudeville and burlesque theater owned by the brothers John and James Wallen, local Democratic political bosses who ran their businesses out of the back of the theater. Nellie and her mother moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where, using the stage name Creole Nell she found vaudeville work in Over the Rhine Cincinnati s German immigrant neighborhood that was home to many breweries and theaters including vaudeville burlesque and legitimate venues She also performed at Cincinnati s dime museum one of ...