1-20 of 27 Results  for:

  • Social Welfare x
  • Journalism, Print and Broadcast x
Clear all

Article

Amin, Qasim Mohammed  

Emad Abdul-Latif

Egyptian social activist and writer, was born in Alexandria on 1 December 1863 to an Ottoman-Kurdish father, who served as an administrator in Kurdistan before working in the Egyptian army, and an Upper Egyptian mother, the daughter of Ahmed Bek Khattab, who belonged to a prestigious family in Egypt. Amin attended Raʾas Al Tin primary school in Alexandria and high school in Cairo, after which he studied at the School of Law and Administration in Cairo and was there granted his BA degree in 1881. Four years later, he received another degree in Law from the University of Montpellier in France. He worked as a lawyer shortly after his graduation and then traveled on a scholarship to France, where he enrolled in the University of Montpellier. In 1885 he completed his four year study in law with distinction upon returning to Egypt he worked in the judiciary He ...

Article

Cannady, Beatrice Morrow  

Kimberley Mangun

editor and civil rights activist, was born Beatrice Hulon Morrow in Littig, Texas. She was one of the fourteen children of George Morrow, a farmer, and Mary Francis Carter. Little is known about Cannady's childhood, but she reputedly graduated from Wiley College in Marshall, Texas, in 1908. She taught briefly in Louisiana and Oklahoma, though her passion was voice and piano, which she studied at the University of Chicago in the summer of 1908 and 1909.

Her decision to leave Illinois in the spring of 1912 and move to Portland, Oregon—a city with just one thousand African Americans—was inspired by a long-distance relationship with Edward Cannady, a “hat-check man” at the elegant Portland Hotel and a cofounder of The Advocate, a newspaper founded in 1903 for African Americans She abandoned her dream of becoming an opera singer cashed in her return train ticket ...

Article

DeKnight, Freda  

Donna Battle Pierce

was born Freda Celeste Alexander to Frederick Alexander, a steward for the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad Company and Eleanor Alexander, originally from Massachusetts, a nurse. She was the younger of two daughters. The much-traveled Alexander family considered Topeka home base at the time of DeKnight’s birth.

Because their mother performed traveling nurse duties at the time their father died, both sisters moved with their aunt to Mitchell, South Dakota, home to the state’s elaborate Corn Palace. They lived with their mother’s brother, Paul Scott, a regionally celebrated caterer, and his Mississippi-born wife, Mamie, whom the girls grew to call Mama Scott.

DeKnight credits growing up in Papa and Mama Scott’s hard-working, food-oriented household, where most ingredients were sourced from their farmland and smokehouse, as the prime inspiration for her recipe-centered future.

Due to the small population of Black students growing up in South Dakota during the early decades ...

Article

Goodman, George Wendell  

Elizabeth Doerfler

journalist, educator, social worker, activist, and community leader was born in Hartford, Connecticut, in or around 1901 to John T. Goodman, a laborer, and Harriet Goodman. Both of his parents were born in Virginia as were his siblings, David and Esther. This indicates that the Goodmans were part of the early African American migration from the South to the urban North, a process that increased greatly during the Great Migration that began in World War I. By 1920, when Goodman was nineteen, the family—which included his parents, his sister, Margaret, her husband, Floyd Davis, and their daughter, Marjorie—lived at 290 Garden Street, part of an African‐American neighborhood in Hartford.

Goodman graduated from Hartford Public High School in 1922 He was one of the very few African Americans to graduate in his class During high school Goodman was on the debate team the football team and ...

Article

Greene, Percy  

Julius E. Thompson

journalist and publisher, was born in Jackson, Mississippi, the fourth of twelve children of George Washington Greene, a carpenter, and Sarah Stone Greene, a laundress. He was educated at the Smith Robertson School and at the high school division of Jackson College (later Jackson State University), receiving his degree in 1915; during this period he also pent one year at Jackson's black Catholic high school. He attended the college division of Jackson College from 1920 to 1922, where he was active on the football team. On 8 September 1917 he enlisted in the army and served with black troops in Company B, 25th Infantry in France. He returned to the United States on 26 June 1920.

Following his stint in the army Greene developed an interest in business and journalism and he wanted to study law and become an attorney For several years in ...

Article

Harmon, Willie Bea “Willa”  

Donna L. Halper

was one of seven children born in Lee County, Arkansas, to Morris Harmon, a truck driver, and his wife Viola (Bea) Harmon, a maid. She grew up in Kansas City, Missouri, graduating from Lincoln High School in 1936. Even in high school Harmon was attracted to journalism; she was on the staff of the school newspaper and volunteered at the Kansas City Call, where she met some of the city’s best-known Black reporters

Harmon attended the University of Kansas, and after graduating in 1940 with a journalism degree, she almost immediately found a job as a news reporter for the St. Louis Call, a short-lived off-shoot of the Kansas City Call. Subsequently, she went to work for another Black paper, the St. Louis Argus, where one of the most high-profile stories she covered was the January 1942 lynching of a Black man named Cleo Wright ...

Article

Léro, Etienne  

Nick Nesbitt

In 1932 the Martinican student Etienne Léro published a single issue of the journal Légitime défense in Paris with a team of writers, including René Ménil, Jules-Marcel Monnerot, Maurice-Sabas Quitman, and Simone Yoyotte. The issue served as a cry to arms for the decolonization movement in the Francophone world. Condemning the “suffocation” of “this capitalist, Christian, bourgeois world,” the writers of Légitime défense “call out to all those who are not yet killed, bought out, screwed, scholasticized, successful, decorated, rotten, provided for, decorative, prudish, marked opportunists; we call out to those who can still make a claim to life with some appearance of plausibility.”

Légitime défense condemned the Antillean colored bourgeoisie for their desire to integrate within French society The writers identified the consequent alienation of this group as unavoidable Progressively the Antillean of color denies his race his body his fundamental and particular passions ...

Article

Marson, Una  

Alison Donnell

Jamaicanpoet, playwright, and journalist born in the county parish of St Elizabeth. As the daughter of a middle‐class Baptist minister, Marson's intellectual development took place within the context of a religious home and the conservative and colonial Hampton high school, where she had won a scholarship place. When Marson left school in 1922, she directed her studies at commerce and secretarial work, and her decision to work with the Salvation Army and the YMCA in Kingston was an early indication of her commitment to ideas of social justice. Her interests in journalism were also evident, and in 1928 she founded and edited her own monthly journal, The Cosmopolitan: A Monthly Magazine for the Business Youth of Jamaica and the Official Organ of the Stenographers' Association The editorial statement of this bold and defiantly modern publication with a strong emphasis on women s issues proclaimed This ...

Article

Matthews, Victoria Earle  

Although she only lived to forty-five, Victoria Earle Matthews left an important legacy to black women. Born a slave on a plantation in Georgia in 1861, she moved to New York City with her mother, Caroline Smith, an escaped slave who returned from the North to retrieve her family after the Civil War.

Matthews attended Grammar School 48 in New York but had to leave school and do domestic work to help support her family. She continued to educate herself, however, reading in the library of the family for whom she worked and attending lectures. Shortly after her marriage in 1879, she began writing essays and short stories for periodicals like Waverly and New York Weekly. Under the pen name “Victoria Earle” she wrote Aunt Lindy, a novel about a Georgia slave who kills her former master after the Civil War (1893 She ...

Article

Matthews, Victoria Earle  

Floris Barnett Cash

Matthews was born in Fort Valley, Georgia, one of nine children of Caroline Smith. Her mother, a native of Virginia, escaped from slavery to New York during the Civil War but returned to Georgia for her children after emancipation. Victoria, her mother, and the rest of the family arrived in New York City around 1873, after spending three years in Richmond and Norfolk.

Matthews received little formal education. She attended Grammar School 48 in New York City until poverty and the illness of a family member forced her to leave. She began working as a domestic but continued to read and attend lectures. In 1879, at the age of eighteen, she married William Matthews, a coachman and native of Petersburg, Virginia. During the early years of her marriage, Matthews wrote short stories and essays for Waverly magazine and other publications.

In 1893 under the ...

Article

Matthews, Victoria Earle  

Deborah Garfield

Victoria Matthews was born Victoria Earle in Fort Valley, Georgia, to the slave Caroline Smith. Caroline fled to New York in order to escape a vicious master, probably Victoria's father. Saving her wages, the mother returned eight years later and won custody of Victoria and her sister and took them to New York around 1873. Though Victoria was an adept student, family crises prompted her to leave school for domestic service. Yet she soon harvested a rich education from her admiring employer's library. At eighteen, after marying William Matthews and bearing a son, Lamartine, she applied her self-enlightenment to a thriving journalistic career, which commenced with work as a “sub” -reporter for publications like the Times, Herald, and Sunday Mercury. A prolific correspondent for African American newspapers, including the Boston Advocate and New York Globe, she became an authorial celebrity.

Matthews s career was driven ...

Article

Matthews, Victoria Earle  

Floris Barnett Cash

writer, educator, and activist, was the youngest of nine children born to Caroline Smith, a former slave, in Fort Valley, Georgia. Oral family history has it that Victoria's father was her mother's owner. Her mother migrated to New York with her daughters Victoria and Anna around 1873. Victoria attended Grammar School 48 in New York City until she was compelled to leave because of poverty; she took work as a domestic servant, the only employment available to many African American women at that time. Hallie Quinn Brown's Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction (1926) notes of Matthews, however, that she “never lost an opportunity to improve her mind” (209). Matthews developed her own literacy program, acquiring knowledge from independent study, lectures, and contact with educated people. Marriage at the age of eighteen to William Matthews a carriage driver enabled her ...

Article

Matthews, Victoria Earle  

Julia L. Alderson

social reformer, journalist, author, and lecturer. Born in Fort Valley, Georgia, Victoria Earle Matthews was one of nine children of Caroline Smith, a slave. Matthews's father may have been her mother's master or another slave, William. Matthews's mother fled to the North, returning after Emancipation to regain custody of her children. The family arrived in New York City in 1873, where Matthews attended school until family obligations forced her to begin work as a domestic servant. She married William Matthews, a coachman and native of Petersburg, Virginia, in 1879 at age eighteen. The couple had a son, Lamartine, and settled in Brooklyn.

During the early years of her marriage Matthews wrote children's stories, which were published in Waverly magazine and the Family Story Paper She joined the Women s National Press Association and worked as a sub reporter for several daily newspapers ...

Article

Mayfield, Julian Hudson  

Teishan Latner

novelist, journalist, playwright, actor, civil rights activist, was born in Greer, South Carolina, the first child of Hudson and Annie Mae Mayfield. While he was still a boy, the family moved to Washington, D.C., where he attended the city's segregated public schools. Mayfield evinced an early interest in drama and literature, avidly reading Ernest Hemingway and Richard Wright, and won awards in his high school drama club. Ironically, given his later distinguished journalism career, Mayfield was denied an entry-level job at the Washington Post shortly after his sixteenth birthday because, a receptionist told him, “we don’t hire any colored copy boys” (Mayfield 1984). Graduating from the city's Dunbar High School in 1946, Mayfield enlisted in the U.S. Army but received a medical discharge a year later. Mayfield instead devoted himself to theater, traveling to New York in 1947 to attend classes including ...

Article

Mossell, Gertrude E. H. Bustill  

Claudette Brown

Gertrude Mossell was born on July 3, 1855, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Charles H. and Emily (Robinson) Bustill of Philadelphia, originally members of the Society of Friends (also known as Quakers) who later joined the Old School Presbyterian Church. Mossell was educated in the public elementary schools of Philadelphia, the Institute for Colored Youth, and the Robert Vaux Consolidated Grammar School. Her writing ability was developed with care during her years at Vaux Grammar School. As a graduating student she delivered the class oration, “Influence,” which brought her to the attention of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, editor of the Christian Recorder. He secured the essay for publication in the magazine and invited the young writer to contribute future articles; several articles appeared in the Recorder and the Standard Echo For seven years Mossell taught in the public schools of Camden New Jersey ...

Article

Mossell, Gertrude E. H. Bustill  

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn

Through her books, articles, and newspaper columns, Mossell wrote about her political and social ideology, reflecting the views of a feminist and social reformer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. She encouraged women to go into such professions as medicine and journalism, and she dismissed the notion that a woman had to choose to have either a family or a career. Mossell and other black women leaders of her era combined roles as activist and professional with those of wife and mother. Taken together, her views would not be seriously considered by most African Americans for at least another generation.

Gertrude E. H. Bustill Mossell was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Her parents, Charles H. and Emily (Robinson) Bustill, were among the free-black elite of nineteenth-century Philadelphia. The prominent Bustill family included generations of achievers, including Mossell’s great-grandfather, the former slave Cyril Bustill (1732-1806 who ...

Article

Page, Clarence  

Gary Kerley

journalist and columnist, was born Clarence Eugene Page Jr. at Miami Valley Hospital in Dayton, Ohio, the son of Clarence Hannibal Page, a factory worker and custodian, and Maggie Williams, owner of a catering service. Clarence attended Middletown High School in Middletown, Ohio, where he was feature editor of the school's biweekly newspaper during his senior year. He also won an award from the Southeast Ohio High School Newspaper Association for the year's best feature article. At age seventeen, while still in high school, Page became a freelance writer and photographer for both the Middletown Journal and the Cincinnati Enquirer. After graduating from high school in 1965, Page attended Ohio University in Athens, where he worked on the university's campus newspaper the Post. By the time he graduated in 1969 with a BS in Journalism Page had served for one year as an ...

Article

Page, Clarence  

James Kates

newspaper journalist, columnist, and television commentator. Part of the first generation of black reporters in the mainstream American press, Clarence Page won two Pulitzer Prizes and established a reputation as a leading voice on race and politics. Born in Dayton, Ohio, Page grew up in a working-class family in Middletown, Ohio, where he was encouraged by his high school newspaper adviser to become a reporter. Inspired by television images of the civil rights movement, he saw journalism as an opportunity to become an eyewitness to history. While still in high school he sold articles and photographs to the Middletown Journal and the Cincinnati Enquirer. He attended Ohio University, earning a bachelor's degree in journalism in 1969.

After college, Page joined the Chicago Tribune as a reporter. The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, popularly known as the Kerner Commission, had in its 1968 report ...

Article

Ray, Charles B.  

Diane L. Barnes

Charles Bennett Ray was born in Falmouth, Massachusetts, to Joseph Aspinwall Ray, a postal worker, and Annis Harrington. Apprenticed as a bootmaker on Martha's Vineyard in his youth, Ray later trained for the ministry at the Wesleyan Academy in Wilbraham, Massachusetts, where he was the lone African American student. In the fall of 1832 he entered Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, but unlike at the Academy, where he was welcomed by his fellow students, at the university Ray faced student anger and withdrew after only six weeks.

By the early 1830s Ray had abandoned his hope of achieving higher education and moved to New York City, where he established a boot- and shoemaking shop on Pearl Street in Lower Manhattan. By 1836 his business had expanded into a partnership with another bootmaker, Samuel Cornish, who had coedited the nation's first African American newspaper, Freedom's Journal (1827–1829 Ray ...

Article

Ray, Charles Bennett  

David E. Swift

journalist, educator, and minister, was born in Falmouth, Massachusetts, the son of Joseph Aspinwall Ray, a postal worker, and Annis Harrington, a well-read and deeply religious woman. He claimed descent from American Indians, as well as English and Africans. After schooling in Falmouth, Ray went to work for five years on his grandfather's farm in Rhode Island and then settled on Martha's Vineyard to learn the bootmaker's trade.

A profound experience of Christian conversion convinced Ray to become a Methodist minister. With financial aid from white abolitionist friends he gained entrance into the Wesleyan Academy in Wilbraham, Massachusetts. Though he was the only black in the school, the atmosphere was friendly. The principal, Wilbur Fisk was a broad minded and widely respected Methodist minister and educator Chosen as the first president of Wesleyan University in Middletown Connecticut Fisk admitted Ray to the college in ...