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Bayram, al-Khaʾmis, Mohamed  

Ahmed Jdey

Tunisian author, teacher, reformer, jurisconsult, was born in Tunis in March 1840. His mother was the daughter of Mahmoud Khouja, a minister of Ahmed Bey. His father, Mustapha Ben Mohamed Bayram Ath Thalith III, was a wealthy landowner and merchant from a family of scientists and administrators. When he died in Tunis in 1863, he left his son symbolic capital comprising precious documents, land, properties, funds, merchandise, and social contacts.

Bayram s education was centered both in the family s extensive library and in the rich Tunisian cultural milieu From an early age he studied the Qurʾan hadith and Arabic He studied with eminent professors from the Zeytouna University such as Bayram que Mustapha Bayram Ahmed Mohamed Mouaya Ben Tahar Mohamed Achour and others receiving excellent training in many subjects both Islamic and non Islamic His family was well placed in the social and intellectual circles of Tunis ...


Hadrami, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Muradi al-  

Russell Hopley

North African Islamic theologian and jurist, was born in the city of al-Qayrawan to an Arab family with origins in the Hadramawt region of southern Arabia. His nisba al-Muradi further suggests a lineage among the Madhij Bedouin of Maʾrib in the Yemen. Al-Hadrami received his early education in al-Qayrawan, where he was able to study with a number of luminaries, including the influential jurist Abu ʿImran al-Fasi (d. 1039). He quickly drew the notice of his teachers for his formidable intellect and impressive command of the Arabic language. Al-Hadrami subsequently departed al-Qayrawan, possibly prompted by the Bedouin invasions of the mid-eleventh century, and took up residence in the Moroccan city of Aghmat, southeast of Marrakech. Here, he embarked on a career teaching the Islamic sciences, and he is known to have produced at least one student of note, the theologian Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Musa al-Kalbi al-Darir (d. 1126).

It ...


Hodges, Jacob  

Graham Russell Hodges

Born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to free but poor black parents, Hodges received no education in his early years and at the age of ten shipped out as a “waiting boy” on a schooner bound from Philadelphia to the West Indies. Over the next few years he visited many European ports. During the American Revolution a British warship forced his vessel into New York harbor; destitute, friendless, and illiterate, he wandered throughout the region before settling in Warwick, in Orange County, New York. His employer, a man named Jennings, had acquired much property through litigation, actions that prompted his legal victims to plot to kill him. The conspirators brought Hodges into the plot and took advantage of his intemperance, developed during his years as a seaman, to persuade him to perform the killing. On 21 December 1819 Hodges shot his master in the woods The bullet severely wounded Jennings ...


Hudaybi, Hasan Ismaʿil al-  

Efraim Barak

Egyptian jurist, religious thinker, and second general guide (murshid ʿam) of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt, was born in December 1891 to a lower-class family in Arab al-Sawaliha, a village northwest of Cairo. After learning the Qurʾan in a local kuttab, he spent a year in one of al-Azhar’s religious elementary schools before transferring to a state school, from which he graduated in 1911. Hudaybi then enrolled in law school. Upon completing a five-year program, he began working at the law firm of Kamil Husayn and Hafiz Ramadan. In 1918, Hudaybi opened his own practice in Shibin al-Qanatir, a city near his village, before moving the office to Suhaj in Upper Egypt.

In 1925, Hudaybi was appointed a judge in Qina. Thereafter, he received postings in other provincial towns and was transferred to Cairo in 1933. By the late 1940s he had ...


Mazrui, Sheikh al-Amin  

Yuusuf Caruso

Islamic reformer, scholar, teacher, and jurist, was born in the island town of Mombasa, on the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa, in what is now southeastern Kenya. Sheikh al-Amin’s family belonged to the Omani Arab clan that ruled Mombasa for almost two centuries. The Mazruʿi first emigrated from the Imamate of Oman in the Arabian peninsula to the east coast of Africa during the second half of the seventeenth century. Since the early 1500s, Portuguese soldiers and traders at Mombasa and Malindi had been engaged in an intermittent struggle against the indigenous Swahili merchant elite and the Omani Arabs. In the early eighteenth century, the Portuguese were finally driven out. In 1735 the Mazruʿi liwalis governors came to power in Mombasa and extended their rule over an area stretching from Ras Ngomeni north of Malindi to the Pangani River south of Tanga in what is now northeastern Tanzania ...


Sabti, Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Ja‛far al-Khazraji  

Russell Hopley

Sufi mystic and jurist, was born in the Moroccan city of Sabta (present-day Ceuta) to a family of Arab origin. The primary source for the life of Sabti is the Akhbar Abi al-‘Abbas al-Sabti, a hagiography composed in the early thirteenth century by Ibn al-Zayyat al-Tadili (d. 1230/31), who also authored an important prosopography of the saints and holy men of southern Morocco. Sabti received his initiation into Islamic mysticism at the hand of Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Fakhkhar (d. 1190), a former pupil of the esteemed North African jurist al-Qadi ‘Iyad al-Sabti (d. 1147). After completing his education in northern Morocco, Sabti, aged seventeen at the time, traveled to the southern city of Agadir where he taught grammar and mathematics from his modest residence at the funduq muqbil His reputation as a gifted teacher spread quickly and Tadili reports that students from across ...


Yusi, Abu al-Hasan al-  

Justin Stearns

Moroccan judge and theologian, was born in 1631 near Sefrou in the Middle Atlas into the ait Yusi tribe, which had shortly before moved north from the south of Morocco. When still young, his mother died, and this event is said to have deeply affected al-Yusi and to have pushed him to seek solace in study. His first teacher was affiliated with a local Sufi lodge and taught him the Qurʾan and grammar. When still young, al-Yusi came across a hagiographic account of the famed Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1201), which had a profound effect on him and prompted him to seek out other teachers.

Al-Yusi’s itinerant education took place for the most part in the south of Morocco (Sus). He studied in Marrakech with the jurist and theologian Abu Mahdi ʿIsa al-Suktani (d. 1652) before traveling south to Taroudant, Ilig, and Tamanart. In 1650 not ...