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Jeffery Lewis Stanley

also spelled Beauvais, a free man of color from the French colony of Saint-Domingue who served as a military commander in the French Republican Army during the Haitian Revolution, was most likely born on 17 June 1756 in the colonial city of Port-au-Prince. Bauvais was a leader of the revolt of free people of color (gens de couleur) against the white supremacy of French colonialism in Saint-Domingue during the early 1790s. Into the late 1790s, Bauvais remained loyal to the French Republic, even in the face of British and Spanish incursions.

Bauvais received his education in France at the Collège de la Flèche. Prior to the French and Haitian Revolutions, Bauvais served with the chasseurs volontaires from Saint Domingue who fought in the battle of Savannah during the American War of Independence under the leadership of the Comte d Estaing a former governor general of the colony ...


Jeremy Rich

French military commander and imperialist, was born on 17 November 1867 in Paris, France. He was the eldest of six children, and his family was deeply faithful to Catholicism. Gouraud himself remained a practicing Catholic despite the growth of anticlerical views in the French Third Republic, and later in life his beliefs would lead him to consider French colonialism as the triumph of Christianity over Islam. Gouraud attended secondary school at the College Stanislas. Gouraud’s family had no prior ties to the military profession, but Gouraud was haunted by the Prussian victory over France in 1870 and 1871 and wanted to rebuild his country’s glory through African conquests. His budding interest in the army surprised his parents, but they supported their son’s decision to enter the acclaimed Saint-Cyr military academy, from which he graduated in the class of 1888 At first he accepted his father s wish that he ...


Caryn Cossé Bell

military officer, was born into an influential family of free persons of African descent in the city of Saint-Marc in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (later Haiti). He married the Saint-Marc native Marie Charlotte Lajoie, and the couple had at least two sons, Belton and Bertile Savary. The family fled their native land during the Haitian Revolution and eventually emigrated to New Orleans in a massive Saint-Domingue refugee movement in 1809 and 1810 that nearly doubled the size of the city.

Charles Joseph Savary s life spanned the American French and Haitian revolutions and because of the tumultuous age in which he lived the facts related to his history are scarce fragmentary and sometimes contradictory Part of the problem also stems from circumstances that forced Savary to conceal his identity In Saint Domingue s repressive three caste society and in slave regimes throughout the Americas free men ...