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Islamic jurist born to an Arab family with origins in the region of Jazira Sharik present day Cap Bon Tunisia A close companion and later rival of the North African jurist Abu ʿImran al Fasi d 1039 Abu Bakr ibn ʿAbd al Rahman was fortunate to receive his early education in al Qayrawan under two eminent scholars of Islamic law Ibn Abi Zayd al Qayrawani d 996 and Abu al Hasan al Qabisi d 1012 Abu Bakr was considered to be among the most talented of al Qabisi s many pupils and it was under his tutelage that Abu Bakr learned to compose Islamic legal opinions otherwise known as fatwas He subsequently embarked on the journey eastward in 987 both to undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca and to further his education with established scholars in the cultural capitals of the Islamic east Abu Bakr is reported to have spent time ...

Article

David Michel

minister and activist, was born to Archibald J. Carey Sr., a Methodist minister, and Elizabeth Davis Carey in Chicago, Illinois. He attended Doolittle Elementary School and graduated from Wendell Phillips High School in 1925. As a youth Carey exhibited strong speaking skills and won the Chicago Daily News Oratorical Contest in 1924. In his adolescent years he was much influenced by his father, a staunch Republican politician, who took him to a private meeting with President Theodore Roosevelt.

After high school the young Carey pursued his education at the local Lewis Institute, where he earned a BS in 1928. He married Hazel Harper Carey, with whom he had one daughter, Carolyn. In 1929 he was ordained by his father who had become a bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal AME Church The following year Carey was assigned to the Woodlawn AME Church in ...

Article

North African Islamic theologian and jurist, was born in the city of al-Qayrawan to an Arab family with origins in the Hadramawt region of southern Arabia. His nisba al-Muradi further suggests a lineage among the Madhij Bedouin of Maʾrib in the Yemen. Al-Hadrami received his early education in al-Qayrawan, where he was able to study with a number of luminaries, including the influential jurist Abu ʿImran al-Fasi (d. 1039). He quickly drew the notice of his teachers for his formidable intellect and impressive command of the Arabic language. Al-Hadrami subsequently departed al-Qayrawan, possibly prompted by the Bedouin invasions of the mid-eleventh century, and took up residence in the Moroccan city of Aghmat, southeast of Marrakech. Here, he embarked on a career teaching the Islamic sciences, and he is known to have produced at least one student of note, the theologian Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Musa al-Kalbi al-Darir (d. 1126).

It ...

Article

Efraim Barak

Egyptian jurist, religious thinker, and second general guide (murshid ʿam) of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt, was born in December 1891 to a lower-class family in Arab al-Sawaliha, a village northwest of Cairo. After learning the Qurʾan in a local kuttab, he spent a year in one of al-Azhar’s religious elementary schools before transferring to a state school, from which he graduated in 1911. Hudaybi then enrolled in law school. Upon completing a five-year program, he began working at the law firm of Kamil Husayn and Hafiz Ramadan. In 1918, Hudaybi opened his own practice in Shibin al-Qanatir, a city near his village, before moving the office to Suhaj in Upper Egypt.

In 1925, Hudaybi was appointed a judge in Qina. Thereafter, he received postings in other provincial towns and was transferred to Cairo in 1933. By the late 1940s he had ...

Article

Russell Hopley

Tunisian jurist, was born in the Tunisian city of al-Qayrawan to a wealthy family originally from the large tribal confederation of the Nafzawa. His full name was Abu Muhammad ʿAbd Allah ibn Abi Zayd ʿAbd al-Rahman al-Nafzawi ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani.

Ibn Abi Zayd undertook his early studies in al-Qayrawan, where he quickly gained the recognition of his peers for his intelligence, generosity, and piety. He was fortunate to be able to study with a number of luminaries in a variety of fields, among them Ibn al-Labbad (d. 944) in the area of Islamic jurisprudence, and al-Kanishi (d. 958), from whom he received an extensive education in classical Arabic poetry and adab Ibn Abi Zayd undertook the pilgrimage to Mecca while still a young man and it was during his travels in the cultural capitals of the Islamic east that he came into contact with several important intellectual currents ...

Article

Russell Hopley

historian and jurist, was born in Tadla in the region north of the Moroccan High Atlas. His full name was Abu Yaʿqub Yusuf ibn al-Zayyat al-Tadili. As a young man, al-Tadili was a follower of the venerated twelfth-century Moroccan mystic Abu ʾl-ʿAbbas al-Sabti (d. 1204). He received an education in the various fields of Islamic law, and he subsequently accepted the position of qadi among the Ragraga Berbers west of Marrakesh. Al-Tadili is best known for the hagiographical collection he authored, the Tashawwuf ila rijal al-tasawwuf, that includes biographical notices on 279 holy men and mystics who lived in North Africa from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries. Most of the mystics dealt with in the Tashawwuf were active in southern Morocco; however, there are several notices concerning prominent holy men from Fez, Meknes, Ceuta, Tlemcen, and Bijaya. Al-Tadili remarks in the prologue to the Tashawwuf that his ...

Article

North African jurist active in present-day Tunisia, was born to a family originally from the southern Sicilian town of Mazzara, as the nisba Mazari indicates; it is not known, however, whether his family emigrated to Ifriqiya (roughly the region of present-day Tunisia) before or after his birth in1061. His full name was Abu ʿAbd Allah Muhammad ibn ʿAli ibn ʿUmar al-Tamimi al-Mazari.

Mazari completed his early studies in Sfax as a pupil of Abu al-Hasan al-Lakhmi (d. 1085) and in the city of Sousse under the tutelage of ʿAbd al-Hamid ibn al-Saʾigh (d. 1093 Both men had received a traditional education in the Islamic sciences in the city of al Qayrawan but subsequently departed to the coastal cities of Ifriqiya following the Hilali Bedouin invasion of the Tunisian hinterland and sack of al Qayrawan in the mid eleventh century It should be noted that Mazari unlike many North ...

Article

Yuusuf Caruso

Islamic reformer, scholar, teacher, and jurist, was born in the island town of Mombasa, on the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa, in what is now southeastern Kenya. Sheikh al-Amin’s family belonged to the Omani Arab clan that ruled Mombasa for almost two centuries. The Mazruʿi first emigrated from the Imamate of Oman in the Arabian peninsula to the east coast of Africa during the second half of the seventeenth century. Since the early 1500s, Portuguese soldiers and traders at Mombasa and Malindi had been engaged in an intermittent struggle against the indigenous Swahili merchant elite and the Omani Arabs. In the early eighteenth century, the Portuguese were finally driven out. In 1735 the Mazruʿi liwalis governors came to power in Mombasa and extended their rule over an area stretching from Ras Ngomeni north of Malindi to the Pangani River south of Tanga in what is now northeastern Tanzania ...

Article

Jay Spaulding

was a prominent northern Sudanese intellectual and jurist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. His family was Jaʿali by background, but by the mid-1760s they had relocated to the contemporary northern provincial capital of Halfayat al-Muluk. There Muhammad al-Nur’s father Dayf Allah ibn Muhammad served the ruling ʿAbdallab manjil as qadi within the new national Islamic magistracy erected by Muhammad Abu Likeilik, a role in which he was to be succeeded in turn by his sons Dayf Allah and Muhammad al-Nur. Court records produced by the trio between 1767 and 1811 illustrate both their legal expertise and the growing pains of the new judiciary.

The unique contribution of Muhammad al-Nur ibn Dayf Allah was the creation of the reigning masterpiece of precolonial Sudanese Arabic literature, a collection of about three hundred Sudanese saints’ lives called the Kitab al-tabaqat fi khusus al-awliyaʾwaʾl-salihin waʾl-ʿulamaʾ waʾl-shuʿaraʾ fiʾl-sudan. Muhammad al Nur ...

Article

Sufi mystic and jurist, was born in the Moroccan city of Sabta (present-day Ceuta) to a family of Arab origin. The primary source for the life of Sabti is the Akhbar Abi al-‘Abbas al-Sabti, a hagiography composed in the early thirteenth century by Ibn al-Zayyat al-Tadili (d. 1230/31), who also authored an important prosopography of the saints and holy men of southern Morocco. Sabti received his initiation into Islamic mysticism at the hand of Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Fakhkhar (d. 1190), a former pupil of the esteemed North African jurist al-Qadi ‘Iyad al-Sabti (d. 1147). After completing his education in northern Morocco, Sabti, aged seventeen at the time, traveled to the southern city of Agadir where he taught grammar and mathematics from his modest residence at the funduq muqbil His reputation as a gifted teacher spread quickly and Tadili reports that students from across ...

Article

Egyptian jurist, law professor, judge, and cabinet minister, was born in Alexandria on 11 August 1895. He was also known as an educationalist, a champion of the rule of law, a proponent of national independence and Arab solidarity, a leading proponent of the idea that Islam is the paramount characteristic of Arab and Egyptian civilization, and a proponent of the notion that Islam should be a guide for organizing laws and public institutions in the Arab world. His one daughter was Nadia al-Sanhuri (1935– ). Of modest background, he attended a traditional Islamic elementary school and a state secondary school operated by an Islamic foundation in Alexandria. In 1917 he graduated first in his class at the Sultanic Law School in Cairo (which became in 1925 the Law Faculty of King Fuʾad I University the Egyptian University He completed a doctorate in juridical sciences and a second doctorate ...

Article

David Schroeder

educator, minister, lawyer, and justice, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the first of two children born to George Gilchrist Stewart, a blacksmith, and Anna Morris Stewart, a dressmaker, both free blacks. Stewart attended, but did not graduate from, Avery Normal Institute in the late 1860s, and he entered Howard University in 1869. He matriculated at the integrated University of South Carolina as a junior in 1874, and he graduated in December of the following year with bachelor of arts and bachelor of laws degrees. Stewart married Charlotte “Lottie” Pearl Harris in 1876, and they had three children: McCants (1877), Gilchrist (1879), and Carlotta (1881).

Stewart began his career practicing law in Sumter, and he taught math at the State Agricultural and Mechanical School in Orangeburg during the 1877–1878 school year. South Carolina congressman Robert ...

Article

Justin Stearns

Moroccan judge and theologian, was born in 1631 near Sefrou in the Middle Atlas into the ait Yusi tribe, which had shortly before moved north from the south of Morocco. When still young, his mother died, and this event is said to have deeply affected al-Yusi and to have pushed him to seek solace in study. His first teacher was affiliated with a local Sufi lodge and taught him the Qurʾan and grammar. When still young, al-Yusi came across a hagiographic account of the famed Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1201), which had a profound effect on him and prompted him to seek out other teachers.

Al-Yusi’s itinerant education took place for the most part in the south of Morocco (Sus). He studied in Marrakech with the jurist and theologian Abu Mahdi ʿIsa al-Suktani (d. 1652) before traveling south to Taroudant, Ilig, and Tamanart. In 1650 not ...