(b Mobile, AL, Feb 22, 1880; d Boston, May 9, 1919). American bandleader and composer. A champion of black American music and musicians, he played a significant role in the transformation of orchestral ragtime into jazz. As a teenager in Washington, DC, Europe studied the violin, the piano and composition. After moving to New York in 1903, he continued his studies informally with organist Meville Charlton and singer/composer Henry T. Burleigh. By 1909 he had achieved considerable success as a composer of popular songs and as music director for several important theatrical productions, including Red Moon (1908–9) and Mr Lode of Koal (1909). The following year he organized and was elected president of the Clef Club, the first effective union for black musicians in the city’s history. He also conducted the club’s symphony orchestra. On 2 May 1912 ...
Europe, James Reese
Europe, James Reese
music administrator, conductor, and composer, was born in Mobile, Alabama, the son of Henry J. Europe, an Internal Revenue Service employee and Baptist minister, and Lorraine Saxon. Following the loss of his position with the Port of Mobile at the end of the Reconstruction, Europe's father moved his family to Washington, D.C., in 1890 to accept a position with the U.S. Postal Service. Both of Europe's parents were musical, as were some of his siblings. Europe attended the elite M Street High School for blacks and studied violin, piano, and composition with Enrico Hurlei of the U.S. Marine Corps band and with Joseph Douglass, the grandson of Frederick Douglass.
Following the death of his father in 1900 Europe moved to New York City There he became associated with many of the leading figures in black musical theater which was then emerging from the ...
Europe, James Reese
musician. James Reese “Jim” Europe was born in Mobile, Alabama, the fifth of six children. His parents were Henry J. Europe, a former slave and a Baptist pastor employed in various public positions, and Lorraine Saxon Europe, a teacher. Europe learned music from his mother, playing violin and later mandolin.
In 1889 the family moved to Washington, D.C. John Philip Sousa was a close neighbor, and Europe received tuition on piano and violin from Enrico Hurlei, the assistant director of the U.S. Marine Corps Band. Around 1903 Europe moved to New York and studied with the noted African American composer and spirituals expert Harry T. Burleigh. Though aware of his traditional religious heritage, Europe embraced secular black music—ragtime and the show music of entertainers like Bert Williams and George Walker, Ernest Hogan, and Bob Cole and J. Rosamond Johnson He joined Hogan ...
Fuda, Faraj ʿAli
, Egyptian writer, journalist, politician, and intellectual, was born on 20 August 1945, to a middle-class family. The eldest of five children, Fuda spent his childhood in the village of Zarqa, which is located in the district of Dumyat, on the coast of the Mediterranean. His father, ʿAli, who was a devout Muslim and very involved in community life, studied mechanical engineering at the University of Alexandria; he then went on to a career overseeing maintenance at the iron and steel firm in Hilwan. Fuda’s mother died when he was fourteen.
Fuda finished high school in 1962 and began studying agriculture at university, at the decree of the governmental coordination office, which determined higher education placement. In 1967 he graduated with honors from ʿAin Shams University in Cairo and took a position teaching there A year later he was involved in student demonstrations and was detained for two ...
Leftwich, John C.
Melissa Nicole Stuckey
educator and newspaper editor, was born John Carter Leftwich in Forkland, Alabama, the eldest of the eight children of Frances Edge and Lloyd Leftwich. From 1872 to 1876 Lloyd Leftwich served as one of Alabama's last black state senators. John Leftwich and his siblings grew up on the 122-acre farm his parents purchased from Lloyd Leftwich's former owner. The former slaves instilled in their children the importance of religion and education. Not only did the couple learn to read and write after the Civil War but they also donated a portion of their property for the construction of Lloyd Chapel Baptist Church and Lloyd Elementary School. Remarkable for the time period, most of their eight children became college graduates.
In 1886 Leftwich entered Selma University in Selma, Alabama. Unhappy there, he wrote to Booker T. Washington for permission to transfer to Tuskegee Institute and he offered to ...
Moore, Harry T.
Hope W. Jackson
educator and martyred civil rights activist. Before Medgar Wylie Evers or Rosa Parks, there was Harry Tyson Moore, born on 18 November 1905 in the small town of Houston, Florida, in Suwannee County. He was the only child of Johnny Moore, who maintained the water lines for local railroads, and Rosa Tyson Moore. When Harry was nine his father died, and subsequently he lived in Jacksonville with three of his mother's sisters, Jesse, Adrianna, and Masie Tyson. One was a nurse and the other two were educators. From these women Harry learned the importance of education, as well as histories of affluent blacks.
In 1919 Moore returned to Suwannee County and attended the high school at the Florida Baptist Institute—later part of what is now Florida Memorial University—where his intelligence and high grades earned him the nickname “Doc.” He graduated from the institute in 1925 ...
Moore, Harry Tyson
Jake C. Miller
civil rights martyr and educator, was born in Houston, Florida, the son of S. Johnny Moore, a farmer and store owner, and Rosalea A. Tyson, an insurance agent. Harry spent most of his early life in Suwannee County, attending school, performing chores on the farm, riding horses, and fishing. Living with aunts where he could obtain a better education, he received portions of his schooling in Daytona Beach and Jacksonville prior to attending and graduating in 1925 from high school at Florida Normal Institute in Live Oak (later Florida Memorial University in Miami). Later, while teaching in Brevard County, he received his AA (1936) and BS (1951) degrees from Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach. Harry married Harriette V. Sims, a teacher, and the couple had two daughters, Annie Rosalea and Juanita Evangeline The Moore family made its home in the small ...
Moore, Harry Tyson
Steven F. Lawson
Moore, Harry Tyson (18 November 1905–25 December 1951), educator and civil rights activist, was born in Houston, Florida, the son of S. Johnny Moore, a farmer and store owner, and Rosalea Alberta Tyson, an insurance agent. An African American, Moore grew up in rural, northern Florida when racial segregation was in full force. After attending public schools in Daytona Beach and Jacksonville, in 1925 Moore graduated from Florida Memorial College in Live Oak with an A.A. degree. (Not until 1951 did he receive a B.S. degree from Bethune Cookman College.) In 1926 Moore began his teaching career at Cocoa Junior High School in Cocoa, Florida. As a public school teacher, he knew firsthand that a separate school system shortchanged black students and faculty in providing unequal facilities and financial resources. In 1926 Moore married Harriette Vyda Simms; they had two children.
Moore s concern about discrimination prompted ...
Moore, Harry Tyson
The victim of a bombing on Christmas night, Harry Tyson Moore was only forty-six when he died, but in his short life he accomplished much. Trained as a schoolteacher, Moore worked for the Brevard County, Florida, school system from 1925 until 1946, when his NAACP–supported campaign to secure equal pay for African American teachers cost him his position as superintendent of the area's Negro high school. Following the loss of his job, Moore continued to work for the state branch of the NAACP, focusing not only on economic and educational equality but also on voter registration and the fair enforcement of laws. When in November 1951 a white sheriff shot two black handcuffed defendants, killing one, Moore demanded that he be indicted for murder.
On December 25 of that year a bomb exploded under the bedroom of Moore s house killing him instantly his wife Harriet died a few ...
Randolph, Benjamin Franklin
Daniel W. Hamilton
Reconstruction politician, civil rights leader, and murder victim, was born free in Kentucky, the child of parents of mixed ethnicity whose names are unknown. When he was a child Randolph's family moved to Ohio, where he was educated in local schools. In 1854 he entered Oberlin College's preparatory department, before attending the college from 1857 to 1862. At Oberlin Randolph received instruction both in the liberal arts and at the college's theological seminary. Soon after graduation he was ordained as a Methodist Episcopal minister. During the Civil War Randolph served as a chaplain in the Twenty-sixth Colored Infantry, which was dispatched to Hilton Head, South Carolina, in 1864.
After the war ended in 1865 Randolph applied for a position with the Freedmen s Bureau He was not initially given an appointment but was instead sent to South Carolina by the American Missionary Association a ...
Rive, Richard Moore
South African short story writer, novelist, literary critic, track-and-field athlete, and educator, was born 1 March 1931 in Cape Town to Nancy Ward Rive. His paternity is uncertain, as his father died soon after his birth and was seldom discussed in his home, though Rive speculated in his autobiography that his father may have been an African American. Rive was raised in the mixed-race inner-city area of Cape Town known as District Six, which his writing helped to transform into an emblem of apartheid oppression and dispossession. The district was condemned as a slum in 1966 and was declared “whites only” under the Group Areas Act; subsequently the entire neighborhood was razed and left undeveloped for decades. Rive said in a 1988 interview I always feel when I am here in District 6 that I am standing over a vast cemetery of people who have been moved away against ...