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Efraim Barak

Egyptian army officer who commanded the assassination of the Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat, was born on 14 November 1957 at Malawi, a village in the El Minya region. His father, Ahmad Shawqi, was a lawyer and head of the legal department of the Najʿ Hamadi sugar refinery. Islambuli began his elementary school studies at the Notre Dame missionary school of Malawi, later spent three years in a school run by the sugar company in Najʿ Hamadi, and completed his high school studies at the Al-ʿAruba school of Asyut. He applied to the Police Academy and to the Air Academy but was rejected by both. Finally, he was accepted by the Military College, from which he graduated with honors as an officer in 1978. He was assigned to the Artillery Corps as a commander of an artillery unit and stationed at Unit 333’s base, near Cairo.

Islambuli s thinking was ...


Jeremy Rich

Burundian queen mother and political leader, was born sometime in the mid-nineteenth century in the kingdom of Burundi. Her full name was Nidi Ririkumutima Bizama Hitanzimiza Mwezi. She was married to Mwezi Gisabo, the king of Burundi, just as German forces finally reached the kingdom in the mid-1890s. Mwezi Gisabo held off the limited efforts by German officers to defeat his kingdom through military force, but he finally accepted German authority on 6 June 1903 in the Treaty of Kiganda. Ririkumutima was Mwezi Gisabo’s favorite wife. She bore him four sons: Karabona, Bishinga, Nduwumwe, and Bangura. She held a great deal of power in her own right. According to oral accounts, she intervened on behalf of a man falsely accused by members of the royal court. Ririkumutime demanded that the case be judged by the Bashingantahe royal council, who acquitted the man of the charges.

After Mwezi Gisabo s death ...