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Brett Gadsden

teacher, civil rights activist, plaintiff in Belton v. Gebhart (1952), a companion case to Brown v. Board of Education (1954), was born in Hazelhurse, Georgia, the daughter of Glover and Ida Hall.

Around 1948, almost a decade after her husband Louis passed away, Ethel Belton moved with her seven children to Claymont, Delaware, a suburban community northwest of Wilmington, Delaware, to join her extended family. There she taught general education in a one-room school. Her daughter, Ethel Louise Belton was eleven years old at the time of the move and was later assigned to Howard High School the only free public school for blacks in the entire state at the time Located in Wilmington it was a fifty minute nine mile commute for Ethel Louise who had a congenital heart condition Although Claymont High School the school for white children in ...


Cary D. Wintz

law enforcement officer, mayor, cabinet secretary, and professor. Lee Brown is best known as a high-profile law enforcement officer who held the position of chief of police or its equivalent in four major U.S. cities, served in President Bill Clinton's cabinet as drug czar, and was the first black mayor of Houston, Texas.

Lee Patrick Brown was born in Wewoka, Oklahoma, on 4 October 1937 to Andrew and Zelma Brown, who worked as farm laborers. When Brown was five the family moved to Fowler, California, about ten miles south of Fresno. As a child Brown often joined his parents in the fields, picking crops. But he also stayed in school, and he attended Fresno State University on a football scholarship, studying sociology and criminology.

In 1960 one semester before graduation Brown left college and took a job as a patrolman with the San Jose ...


Efraim Barak

, Egyptian writer, journalist, politician, and intellectual, was born on 20 August 1945, to a middle-class family. The eldest of five children, Fuda spent his childhood in the village of Zarqa, which is located in the district of Dumyat, on the coast of the Mediterranean. His father, ʿAli, who was a devout Muslim and very involved in community life, studied mechanical engineering at the University of Alexandria; he then went on to a career overseeing maintenance at the iron and steel firm in Hilwan. Fuda’s mother died when he was fourteen.

Fuda finished high school in 1962 and began studying agriculture at university, at the decree of the governmental coordination office, which determined higher education placement. In 1967 he graduated with honors from ʿAin Shams University in Cairo and took a position teaching there A year later he was involved in student demonstrations and was detained for two ...


David B. McCarthy

in a pioneering but unsuccessful attempt to desegregate higher education in North Carolina, was born in Durham, North Carolina, the son of Florence Amos and Thomas Henry Hocutt. After graduating from Durham’s Hillside Park High School, he worked in a pharmacy in a nearby city. He then enrolled in Durham’s North Carolina College for Negroes (now North Carolina Central University) while he worked as an assistant headwaiter at the Washington Duke Inn. Hocutt wanted to become a pharmacist, but North Carolina’s only program was at the University of North Carolina (UNC) in Chapel Hill, which had never admitted African Americans.

In 1933 two Durham attorneys, Conrad Pearson and Cecil McCoy, began to strategize about mounting a legal challenge to North Carolina’s segregationist higher education. With the support of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) executive secretary Walter White the lawyers met with several outstanding students in ...


Melissa Nicole Stuckey

educator and newspaper editor, was born John Carter Leftwich in Forkland, Alabama, the eldest of the eight children of Frances Edge and Lloyd Leftwich. From 1872 to 1876 Lloyd Leftwich served as one of Alabama's last black state senators. John Leftwich and his siblings grew up on the 122-acre farm his parents purchased from Lloyd Leftwich's former owner. The former slaves instilled in their children the importance of religion and education. Not only did the couple learn to read and write after the Civil War but they also donated a portion of their property for the construction of Lloyd Chapel Baptist Church and Lloyd Elementary School. Remarkable for the time period, most of their eight children became college graduates.

In 1886 Leftwich entered Selma University in Selma, Alabama. Unhappy there, he wrote to Booker T. Washington for permission to transfer to Tuskegee Institute and he offered to ...


Hope W. Jackson

educator and martyred civil rights activist. Before Medgar Wylie Evers or Rosa Parks, there was Harry Tyson Moore, born on 18 November 1905 in the small town of Houston, Florida, in Suwannee County. He was the only child of Johnny Moore, who maintained the water lines for local railroads, and Rosa Tyson Moore. When Harry was nine his father died, and subsequently he lived in Jacksonville with three of his mother's sisters, Jesse, Adrianna, and Masie Tyson. One was a nurse and the other two were educators. From these women Harry learned the importance of education, as well as histories of affluent blacks.

In 1919 Moore returned to Suwannee County and attended the high school at the Florida Baptist Institute—later part of what is now Florida Memorial University—where his intelligence and high grades earned him the nickname “Doc.” He graduated from the institute in 1925 ...


Jake C. Miller

civil rights martyr and educator, was born in Houston, Florida, the son of S. Johnny Moore, a farmer and store owner, and Rosalea A. Tyson, an insurance agent. Harry spent most of his early life in Suwannee County, attending school, performing chores on the farm, riding horses, and fishing. Living with aunts where he could obtain a better education, he received portions of his schooling in Daytona Beach and Jacksonville prior to attending and graduating in 1925 from high school at Florida Normal Institute in Live Oak (later Florida Memorial University in Miami). Later, while teaching in Brevard County, he received his AA (1936) and BS (1951) degrees from Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach. Harry married Harriette V. Sims, a teacher, and the couple had two daughters, Annie Rosalea and Juanita Evangeline The Moore family made its home in the small ...


Kate Tuttle

The victim of a bombing on Christmas night, Harry Tyson Moore was only forty-six when he died, but in his short life he accomplished much. Trained as a schoolteacher, Moore worked for the Brevard County, Florida, school system from 1925 until 1946, when his NAACP–supported campaign to secure equal pay for African American teachers cost him his position as superintendent of the area's Negro high school. Following the loss of his job, Moore continued to work for the state branch of the NAACP, focusing not only on economic and educational equality but also on voter registration and the fair enforcement of laws. When in November 1951 a white sheriff shot two black handcuffed defendants, killing one, Moore demanded that he be indicted for murder.

On December 25 of that year a bomb exploded under the bedroom of Moore s house killing him instantly his wife Harriet died a few ...


Steven F. Lawson

Moore, Harry Tyson (18 November 1905–25 December 1951), educator and civil rights activist, was born in Houston, Florida, the son of S. Johnny Moore, a farmer and store owner, and Rosalea Alberta Tyson, an insurance agent. An African American, Moore grew up in rural, northern Florida when racial segregation was in full force. After attending public schools in Daytona Beach and Jacksonville, in 1925 Moore graduated from Florida Memorial College in Live Oak with an A.A. degree. (Not until 1951 did he receive a B.S. degree from Bethune Cookman College.) In 1926 Moore began his teaching career at Cocoa Junior High School in Cocoa, Florida. As a public school teacher, he knew firsthand that a separate school system shortchanged black students and faculty in providing unequal facilities and financial resources. In 1926 Moore married Harriette Vyda Simms; they had two children.

Moore s concern about discrimination prompted ...


Robert Joost Willink

Dutch traveler to Africa, was born on 17 October 1835, the only child of John Frederick Tinne and his second wife, Lady Henriette Maria Louise Van Capellen. Her father’s wealth came from sugar and coffee plantations in Demarara in Guiana in the West Indies (present-day Guyana and Suriname), and from his lucrative mercantile business in Liverpool, England. When he died at The Hague in 1844, he left an inheritance that increased enormously in the coming years, thanks to the continued success of his Liverpool company under the management of his son from his first marriage, John Abraham Tinne. Alexine Tinne, as she preferred to be called, used her father’s bequests to finance her later journeys.

Due to her frequent travels abroad Alexine Tinne was responsible for her own education In her writing and conversation she used both English and French She was especially interested in geography painting and ...