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Sulaiman Y. Balarabe Kura

Nigerian professor of political science, was born in Omoku, Rivers state, Nigeria, on 18 February 1939. His father, Geoffrey Aké, was a politician, and his mother, Christiana, was a trader. His wife was named Anita; they had two sons. Aké attended Kings College, Lagos, and the University of Ibadan in Nigeria, then studied at the University of London and Columbia University in New York City, in 1962 and 1963, respectively. He earned a PhD from Columbia in 1966. Thereafter he enjoyed an academic career at different universities across the world. Aké served as an assistant professor of political science at Columbia University between 1966 and 1969, as associate professor, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, from 1969 to 1972, and as a visiting lecturer at the University of Nairobi, from 1970 to 1972, and the University of Dar Es Salaam, from 1972 to 1974 He ...


Akwasi Osei

Claude Eleme Aké (1939–1996) was an intellectual, political economist, activist, teacher, author, and theoretician par excellence of the African condition. For over thirty years, he was the most consistent voice on how Africa must develop. He used his prodigious intellect to champion African development in the service of its peoples. On 7 November 1996, he died in a plane crash on his way from his base in Port Harcourt to Lagos.

Born in Rivers State Claude Aké had a rich academic life he earned a doctorate from Columbia University in New York He went from there to universities think tanks and research institutions across the world in Kenya Tanzania Nigeria Canada Senegal the United Kingdom and the United States He eventually became Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Port Harcourt He held positions at the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars and the ...


Michael Hall

Cabral (1924–1973) was an African nationalist, Marxist, and intellectual who led the armed struggle for independence in Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese Guinea) and the Cape Verde Islands. Amilcar Lopes Cabral was born on 12 September 1924 in Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau. His father, Juvenal Cabral, was a member of the mulatto middle class from the Cape Verde Islands. Unlike the population of Guinea-Bissau, which was primarily black, most people in the Cape Verde Islands, an archipelago of uninhabited islands that had been colonized by the Portuguese since the fifteenth century, were mulattos who had undergone an extensive Portuguese cultural assimilation process. Cabral’s father had moved to Guinea-Bissau in search of a civil service job in 1907, where he eventually married a local woman. Cabral was named in honor of Carthaginian general and statesman Hamilcar Barca (270–228 b.c.e.), the father of Hannibal (247–183 b.c.e. Cabral s father an elementary school ...


Eric Young

Amílcar Cabral was born in Bafatá, Portuguese Guinea (today Guinea-Bissau). Because both of his parents were from the Cape Verde Islands, he automatically received Portuguese citizenship. After earning high marks in elementary school, Cabral attended secondary school in the Cape Verde Islands and then, at the age of twenty-one, the University of Lisbon in Portugal. He graduated with honors, and in 1950 Cabral entered the Portuguese colonial agriculture service and became increasingly active in revolutionary intellectual circles.

Between 1952 and 1954 Cabral conducted the first agricultural survey of Portuguese Guinea. As he gained an extensive knowledge of the land and popular grievances, he helped increase political awareness among his friends, mainly of Cape Verdean descent. Increasingly involved in anti-Portuguese activities, Cabral helped establish a recreation association and other quickly banned organizations before his return to Portugal. In Lisbon, and later in Angola he met revolutionary leaders from Angola ...


Abel Djassi Amado

anticolonial intellectual active in Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, was born on 24 September 1924, in Portuguese Guinea (henceforth Guinea-Bissau) to Cape Verdean parents. A West African agronomist-turned-politician, military strategist, and revolutionary theorist, Cabral was an active anticolonial thinker and activist during the 1960s and the first half of the 1970s. Unlike most anticolonial political figures, Cabral cannot be tied to a single national identity as both his biography and his political activities linked him to both Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, two former Portuguese colonies in Africa. Hence, with the coming of independence, the title of pai da nacionalidade (literally “the father of nationality”) was legally bestowed upon him in those two African states.

Cabral spent his early childhood in Guinea-Bissau and moved to Cape Verde in 1933 His primary education took place on Santiago Island and with his mother he relocated to São Vicente Island to ...


Corinna M. McLeod

was born on the Dutch Caribbean island of Aruba to Grenadian parents, Helena and John Collins, on 29 September 1950. Shortly after she was born, her parents returned with her to Grenada, where she grew up. Collins completed her secondary education at St. Joseph’s Convent School in St. Georges before earning her B.A. in English and Spanish at the University of the West Indies in Mona, Jamaica (1969–1972). Collins taught at MacDonald College in Saint Patrick, Grenada, from 1975 to 1978. After a brief time in Mexico, Collins traveled to the United States, where she attended Georgetown University and in 1981 completed a master’s degree in Latin American studies. Collins earned her Ph.D. in government at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Her dissertation, completed in 1990, was on Caribbean politics and the prerevolutionary period in Grenada.

Collins returned to Grenada after completing ...


Michelle Gueraldi

Lélia de Almeida Gonzales obtained several academic degrees, including a bachelor's degree in history and philosophy at the Rio de Janeiro State University, a master's degree in communications at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and a doctorate in social anthropology at the University of São Paulo. She also directed the Department of Sociology at Rio de Janeiro Catholic University.

Gonzales figured prominently in post-1950s intellectual life in Brazil. She was one of the first black women to teach at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and in 1978 was one of the founders of the Movimento Negro Unificado (Unified Black Movement). In 1979 Gonzales was also one of the founders of the Working Group on Themes and Problems of the Black Population in Brazil at Candido Mendes University in Rio de Janeiro The group has produced various unique essays on Afro Brazilian issues A strong ...


David Michel

was born Mirlande Hyppolite on 3 November 1940 in Miragoane, Haiti. She completed high school and attended the Ecole Normale Supérieure (Teachers’ College), which granted her a diploma in social sciences. Later, Mirlande moved to France and earned a degree in history and a doctorate in political science at the Sorbonne.

In 1970 Manigat married Leslie F. Manigat, future president of Haiti, while living in France; this was her husband’s second marriage. She gave birth to a daughter, Beatrice, in 1971. After graduation from the Sorbonne, Mirlande taught in France (1970–1974), Trinidad and Tobago (1974–1978), and Venezuela (1978–1986). After the fall of the Duvalier regimes, she and her husband returned to Haiti in 1986.

In Haiti Mirlande became very politically active established a reputation as an expert in Haitian constitutional law and politics and is an important figure in higher education ...


Peter Mbago Wakholi

Ugandan academic, was born in Bugisu, Eastern Uganda. He studied law at Lincoln’s Inn, London, where he obtained the degree of bachelor of laws in 1963 and was admitted as a barrister at Lincoln s Inn London in the same year He returned to Uganda where he became an advocate of the high court for several years until his imprisonment by Milton Obote for his activities as chairman of the Uganda Vietnam Solidarity Committee Later Idi Amin released him from detention and appointed him chairman of the board of directors of the East African Railways Corporation 1971 1973 which was part of the East African Community EAC Nabudere resigned from this appointment in protest of the crimes committed by Idi Amin s military regime He moved to Dar es Salaam University in Tanzania and joined the faculty of law as a senior lecturer and an associate professor later on ...