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Nancy Elizabeth Fitch

Alexander, Sadie Tanner Mossell (03 January 1898–01 November 1989), economist and lawyer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Aaron Mossell, an attorney and the first black graduate of the University of Pennsylvania Law School, and Mary Tanner. While a young girl her father abandoned the family, and she was raised by her mother with the assistance of relatives.

Alexander received her degrees from the University of Pennsylvania With her Ph D in economics awarded in 1921 she became the first African American woman to receive a doctorate in economics and among the first three African American women to receive a doctorate in any field in the United States Her doctoral dissertation The Standard of Living among One Hundred Negro Migrant Families in Philadelphia was a thorough social survey investigating spending patterns from 1916 to 1918 of African American migrant families newly arrived from the South ...


Jennifer Vaughn

author, educator, and economist, was born Richard Franklin America Jr. in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Richard Franklin America Sr. and Arline America. In 1960 America received a BS in Economics from Pennsylvania State University and in 1965 an MBA from the Graduate School of Business at Harvard University. Afterward, he joined the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California, where he worked for the next four years as a Development Economist in the Urban and Regional Economics Group.

In April 1969 America published “What Do You People Want?” in the Harvard Business Review In it he advocated major federal subsidies to facilitate economic equality and large scale participation of blacks in the corporate world and made suggestions as to how these goals might be accomplished including the transfer of corporations to black shareholders and managers The article offered a radical approach to policy pertaining to reparations and ...


Sanya Osha

Egyptian economic theorist, was born in Egypt to an Egyptian father and a French mother, both of whom were medical doctors. Amin had his early schooling at Port Said and then proceeded to France, where he obtained degrees in political science and statistics before finally earning a doctorate in economics from the University of Paris in 1957. He joined the French Communist Party (FCP) but later broke away and eventually became involved with Maoist organizations. After his studies in France, Amin returned to Egypt to work for the government, but eventually had to leave the country for his antigovernment stance. He then worked for the Ministry of Planning in Mali between 1960 and 1963. Amin was later offered a research position at the Institut Africain de Développement Économique et de Planification (IDEP). In addition, he held professorships in Poitiers, Dakar, and Paris. In 1970 he was appointed ...


Sanya Osha

The task to build a more human world is an ongoing one. In this regard, the work of the Nobel Prize–winning economist Amartya Sen deserves more than a passing mention. Sen is important because he speaks primarily for the developing world and also because, along with the late Pakistani economist Mahbub Ul-Haq, he seriously advocated a paradigm shift in terms of the approach for estimating human development. According to Sen, development is understood

as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. Focusing on human freedoms contrasts with narrower views of development such as identifying development with the growth gross national product, or with personal incomes, or with industrialization, or with technological advance, or with social modernization.

(1999, p. 4)

If it is agreed that Sen uses the discourse of the establishment to criticize the establishment then much more could be said of Samir Amin the ...


Esther Aillón Soria

of three oral history books, was born on 27 January 1950 in the Dorado Chico community, in the municipality of Coripata (Yungas region of La Paz). His parents were Santiago Angola Larrea, born in Cala Cala, and Irene Maconde Zambrana, also born in Dorado Chico. Both were illiterate, and they served as pongo (man) and mitani (woman), a system of servitude for peasant laborers until 1947, at a “hacienda” (latifundia after which they worked as farmers in the coca and citrus fields Based on his experience and a self taught quest Angola Maconde became a researcher and in the twenty first century he has embraced a historical perspective from his experience as an Afro descendant in Bolivia in his numerous published works He is part of the first Afro Bolivian generation born in the Yungas region who have migrated to the city of La Paz though many ...


Marlene Attzs

was born in Trinidad and Tobago on 27 February 1934. He received his education at the Tacarigua Anglican School and Queen’s Royal College (Trinidad), Downing College (Cambridge University), and Mansfield College (Oxford University). Best launched the Tapia House Movement in 1968, was a founding member of the New World Group, and promoted Caribbean thought as publisher and managing editor of the Trinidad and Tobago Review, as well as through leadership in consultancies and institutes. Lloyd Best served regionally through the University of the West Indies (UWI).

In 1957 Best joined the Faculty of UWI in Mona, Jamaica, as a lecturer in economics and a fellow at the Institute of International Relations, and he remained in academic employment until 1976, when he resigned to contest the Trinidad and Tobago general elections of 1976 under the rubric of the Tapia House Movement THM a party Best had ...


Darius V. Echeverría

economist and educator. Some individuals are important because they exemplify the historical past, while others are important because they embody generational change toward social progress. As the first African American governor of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board (1966–1974), Andrew Felton Brimmer is both the former and the latter.

The life story of this extraordinary leader began on 13 September 1926 in Newellton, Louisiana. The son of Andrew Brimmer Sr., a sharecropper, and Vellar Davis Brimmer, a warehouse worker, Brimmer picked cotton as a child in rural northeastern Louisiana while attending segregated public schools. Rather than allowing the hardships of poverty and racial injustice to discourage him, Brimmer used these experiences as a motivating force. Early on he was determined to earn a college degree so that he could serve in positions where he could help others.

Brimmer graduated from high school in 1944 and ...


Sholomo B. Levy

economist and educator, was born in Newelton, Louisiana, the fourth of five children of Andrew Brimmer Sr., a sharecropper and warehouse worker, and Vellar (Davis) Brimmer. The family abandoned farming when they found it impossible to make a decent living under the crop lien system, an economic arrangement in which farmers borrowed money at high interest rates to work land that they did not own in hopes of sharing profits that rarely materialized. His parents' efforts to escape debt and poverty were young Andrew's first exposure to economic forces and monetary policy.

As a child Andrew was bright and serious. In 1944 he graduated from Tensa Parish Training School, a segregated high school in St. Joseph, Louisiana. Brimmer joined the U.S. Army and served from May 1945 to November 1946 becoming a staff sergeant in the 645th Ordinance Ammunition Company in Hawaii After the war he took ...


Jamal Donaldson Briggs

economist, philanthropist, and educator was born to William H. Brown, a government employee, and Julia Brown (maiden name unknown), a homemaker, in Chicago, Illinois. He was the youngest of three children. William's employment with the City of Chicago afforded Browne a middle-class upbringing on the city's Southside, which was home to a large African American community. His family lived just a few blocks south of Washington Park, an area where the well-off, but not the most elite, residents lived.

Browne became fascinated with economics while attending the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana in the early 1940s. He was the only African American economics major at that university to graduate with honors in 1944 Despite his own relatively comfortable middle class background his research focused on those less privileged than himself particularly on the lack of economic opportunity among African Americans during the Great Depression After graduating ...


Owen J. M. Kalinga

leading economic thinker in Malawi’s decolonization movement, was born in Kaluli Village, Florence Bay (now Chitimba), in British Nyasaland. The area today forms the border of Malawi’s Karonga and Rumpi districts. Very early in his life, his family also lived at Kasoba, just north of Karonga boma, which he was later to adopt as his official second home. Chisiza, then known as Gladstone Dunduzu Kaluli Chisiza, went to Uliwa Junior Primary School and then to Khondowe, the Livingstonia Mission headquarters, where he completed standard six. In keeping with the reputation of the people of Nyasaland (now Malawi) as migrant workers, Chisiza left for Tanzania in 1949.

Chisiza found employment as a clerk in the Tanganyika police force but after a few months he departed for Uganda in search of further education He enrolled at Aggrey Memorial College a private school in Kampala that was also the home of Makerere ...


Rayford W. Logan

William H. Dean, Jr. was born on July 6, 1910, in Lynchburg, Virginia, the only son and the third of four children of the Rev. and Mrs. William Henry Dean, Sr. He spent his early years in Lynchburg, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; Baltimore, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where his father was a pastor in Methodist churches. In 1926 Dean graduated as valedictorian of his class from Douglass High School, Baltimore. Recipient of a scholarship from the Baltimore chapter of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year at Bowdoin College in Maine and received his B.A. degree, graduating summa cum laude, in 1930. He earned his M.A. degree in 1932 and Ph.D. degree from Harvard University in Massachusetts in 1938; both degrees were in economics.

From 1933 to 1942 Dean taught economics and business administration at Atlanta ...


Alexander J. Chenault

economist and education researcher, was born Roland Gehrard Fryer Jr., the son of Roland and Rita Fryer, in Daytona Beach, Florida. After his parents separated when he was aged four, he went to live with his abusive father, a copier salesman in Lewisville, Texas, and did not see his mother for the rest of his upbringing. During the summer months, Roland Jr. would return to Florida to spend time with his grandmother, Farrise, a schoolteacher, and his older cousins, many of whom he came to see as bad influences. His childhood was far from ideal; as a boy, Roland Jr. would ride down with some of his older cousins to Miami as they purchased cocaine to later turn into crack. At thirteen, he forged his birth certificate to obtain a job at a fast‐food restaurant where he stole from the cash register. In 1993 his father was ...


Bahru Zewde

Ethiopian intellectual and reformer, was born in Adwa (northern Ethiopia) on 30 July 1886 Some three years later he lost his father at the battle Metemma between Ethiopia and Mahdist Sudan that claimed the life of Emperor Yohannes IV That fateful event created a political vacuum in northern Ethiopia into which the Italians who were hovering around the port of Massawa stepped with alacrity At the same time the emperor s core province Tegray fell into disarray At the tender age of seven Gebre Heywet joined the exodus of Tegrayans into the adjoining and relatively peaceful Italian colony of Eritrea He spent some years at the Swedish Mission in Menkullu on the mainland off the port of Massawa It was while visiting Massawa that he boarded one of the ships which took him to Austria where he was adopted by a family and acquired a medical degree as well ...


Francesco L. Nepa

Abram Lincoln Harris, Jr., was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of Abram Lincoln Harris, a butcher, and Mary Elizabeth Lee, both descendants of slaves freed before the Civil War. After completing his secondary education in the public schools of Richmond, Harris enrolled at Virginia Union University, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1922. In 1924 he received a Master of Arts degree from the University of Pittsburgh.

Harris then joined the faculty of West Virginia Collegiate Institute (later West Virginia State College), where he taught economics. He remained there until 1925, at which time he began a short stint as executive secretary of the Urban League in Minneapolis. Also in that year, Harris married Callie Ellen McGuinn; they had no children and divorced in 1955 After his year with the Urban League he went to work as a ...


Francesco L. Nepa

economist, author, and educator, was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of Abram Lincoln Harris, a butcher, and Mary Elizabeth Lee, both descendants of slaves freed before the Civil War. After completing his secondary education in the public schools of Richmond, Harris enrolled at Virginia Union University, where he earned a BS in 1922. In 1924 he received an MA from the University of Pittsburgh.

Harris then joined the faculty of West Virginia Collegiate Institute (later West Virginia State College), where he taught economics. He remained there until 1925, at which time he began a short stint as executive secretary of the Urban League in Minneapolis. Also in that year, Harris married Callie Ellen McGuinn; they had no children and divorced in 1955 After his year with the Urban League he went to work as a researcher for Columbia University s ...


John H. McClendon

political economist, economic historian and theorist, and social critic. Abram Lincoln Harris Jr. was born in Richmond, Virginia; his father was a butcher and his mother a schoolteacher, and both parents were strong advocates of education and encouraged him in his pursuit of higher education. Harris earned his BS in economics and anthropology from Virginia Union in 1922 and two years later received an MA in economics from the University of Pittsburgh. Harris's thesis at Pittsburgh focused on the African American working class. Concern with the plight of African American workers remained a vital part of Harris's research agenda for most of his career. This interest is best exemplified in his seminal book The Black Worker; the Negro and the Labor Movement, which he coauthored with the noted political scientist Sterling D. Spero in 1931.

Harris began his teaching career at West Virginia State University ...


William Arthur Lewis was the first black person to receive the Nobel Prize in a category other than peace. He once described his intellectual career as consisting of three phases: the history of world economics and development, industrial economics, and the economic problems of underdeveloped nations. In his Nobel lecture, he suggested that the least developed countries should concentrate on increasing their regional trade rather than being heavily dependent on the continued growth of the most developed countries. He believed that in this way, underdeveloped nations could eventually accelerate their own economies even as growth in the more technologically advantaged nations slackened.

Lewis wanted to study engineering but decided it would be pointless since, at that time, neither the government nor white firms would hire a black engineer. A brilliant student, he received a bachelor of commerce degree with honors from Saint Mary's College in Saint Lucia (1929 ...


Robert Tignor

Distinguished public intellectual, one of the founding figures of the field of development economics, which came to prominence after the Second World War. For his pioneering work in this field, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1979.

1.Lifetime of achievements

2.Academic career

3.Lewis s theory ...


Curtis Jacobs

was born on 23 January 1915 in St. Lucia. He was the fourth of five sons born to Ida Louisa (Barton) Lewis and George Ferdinand Lewis, Antiguan-born schoolteachers. This Anglican family lived on Victoria Street, Castries, and young Lewis attended the Castries Anglican Primary School. He was awarded a scholarship to St. Mary’s College before he was 10, an achievement largely set in motion by his father’s private lessons while he was confined at home for three months because of illness. Lewis later claimed that during this period he learned in three months more than he had been taught in school for two years. He was subsequently promoted from Grade 4 to 6 upon his return to school.

The homeschooling became the parting gift from his father who died not long after Arthur s return to school His widowed mother was thus obliged to rear the couple s five sons ...


La TaSha B. Levy

black economist, social critic, and public intellectual. Once considered the darling of Ronald Reagan's ultraconservative administration, Loury earned notoriety as a staunch critic of the civil rights leadership, affirmative action, and the problems of the so-called black underclass. Though Loury gained fame as a black critic of conventional African American politics, he underwent a political transformation by the late 1990s, steering away from the right-wing conservative political positions that had ignited his career.

Glenn Cartman Loury was born to working-class parents in Chicago's South Side, Illinois. Loury attended Southeast Junior College prior to earning a BA in mathematics from Northwestern University and a PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Loury subsequently served on the faculty at Northwestern and at the University of Michigan before becoming in 1983 the first black tenured professor in Harvard University's economics department.

Loury increased his popularity among white conservatives and conservative ...