South African journalist, antiapartheid activist, writer, and film producer, was born in the Orlando district of Soweto township in South Africa. Her father, scholar Jonathan Mandlenkosi Sikakane, coauthor of the first English–Zulu dictionary (1972), was son of the prominent African National Congress (ANC) founding member and early black minister of the South African Lutheran Church, the Reverend Absolum Mbulawa Sikakane. Her mother, Amelia Nxumalo, a schoolteacher and seamstress, was descended from Swazi royalty from her maternal side. In her family’s attempt to protect her from the degrading and racist state-mandated curriculum institutionalized by the Bantu Education Act, Joyce Sikakane was sent to primarily private and Catholic schools where she was fortunate to receive a more-balanced and sound education. Upon her graduation from secondary school in 1963 Sikakane refused to attend one of the segregated Tribal Colleges and with the encouragement of her English teacher decided to pursue a career ...
cofounder of Los Angeles's Crips gang, author, Nobel Prize nominee, and antigang activist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and moved to South Central Los Angeles in 1959, after his parents (names unknown) divorced. Gang rivalry was prevalent in the area, and Williams was intrigued by the thrilling stories he heard from older neighborhood boys who had served time in prison. As a teenager, he spent time in a variety of juvenile detention centers in California and Utah for drug use, fighting, and suspected burglary.
Back in South Central, Williams earned a reputation as an expert street fighter and, along with high school friend Raymond Lee Washington, founded the Crips in 1971 Although the Crips a derivative of crib was originally founded to protect and defend the members and their families from gang aggression it rapidly increased in membership and violent activity to rival the area s other ...