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Mary Krane Derr

neuropsychiatrist specializing in the biological basis of mental disorders, was born in Bridgetown, Barbados, to Prince Barker and Brunetta (Watson) Barker. As a young teen he immigrated to New York City on the ship Guiana, arriving on 11 September 1911. His mother, who immigrated to New York in 1912, was at the time of the 1920 U.S. Census a fifty‐year‐old widow and private duty laundry worker.

Prince Patanilla Barker graduated from the Bronx's DeWitt Clinton High School in 1915 and earned his B.A. from the City College of New York in 1918. After one year at Cornell University Medical College, Barker transferred to Howard University in Washington, D.C., earning his M.D. in 1923. That year he wed Helen L. Furlonge (3 May 1892–19 February 1978 an immigrant from Montserrat Barker interned at Freedmen s Hospital Washington D C and conducted further postgraduate work ...


Elvita Dominique

physician, professor, mental health activist, and Harlem community leader, was born Elizabeth Bishop in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the eldest of the three children of Shelton Hale Bishop and Eloise Carey. Her mother's father, Archibald James Carey Sr., was an influential African Methodist Episcopal (AME) clergyman in Chicago. Her father's father, Hutchens C. Bishop, was the first black graduate of General Theological Seminary in New York City, the oldest seminary of the Episcopal Church. He was also the fourth rector of the important and influential Saint Philip's Episcopal Church in Harlem. Bishop's parents continued their families' tradition of public service. Her father, who received a BA and a doctorate of divinity from Columbia University, succeeded his own father as the fifth rector of Saint Philip's. Her mother was a teacher.

Elizabeth Bishop s interest in psychiatry can be traced to the work of her father He was an ...


Jon M. Harkness

neuropathologist and psychiatrist, was born in Monrovia, Liberia, the son of Solomon Carter Fuller, a coffee planter and Liberian government official, and Anna Ursala James. His father, the son of a repatriated former American slave, was able to provide a private education for his children at a school he established on his prosperous plantation. In the summer of 1889 young Solomon Fuller left home to return to the country where his grandfather had once been held in bondage. He sought higher education at Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, a college for black students founded ten years earlier.

Fuller graduated from Livingstone in 1893 with an AB and proceeded to pursue a medical degree at Long Island College Hospital in Brooklyn, New York. After one year he transferred to Boston University School of Medicine, where he received an MD in 1897 Although he was deeply disturbed ...


Isaac Kramnick

pediatric psychiatrist, was born Margaret Morgan in New York City, the daughter of the Reverend Sandy Alonzo Morgan, an Episcopal priest, and Mary E. Smith, a schoolteacher. Mistrusting segregated southern hospitals, the Morgans temporarily moved from Virginia to Harlem in 1914, living with Morgan's aunt so that their child could be born in New York. Morgan's childhood, however, was spent primarily in Vicksburg, Mississippi, where her father's next congregation was located. She grew up a precocious child, reading at three, and lived in a middle-class black neighborhood with her educated parents.

Every summer Morgan visited her aunts in Harlem and at the age of fourteen she decided she wanted to live with them so that she could go to a better high school She had decided to be a doctor she told people because her older brother had died in infancy before she was born and ...


Wilnise Jasmin

psychiatrist, administrator, and physician, was born Mildred Mitchell in Brunswick, Georgia, the daughter of a minister and registered nurse. At the age of 12, she volunteered for the Red Cross to care for those injured in a tornado that swept through her hometown of Cordele, Georgia. This experience as well as her love for science and her need to help people, greatly influenced her decision to pursue medicine. She attended Barber-Scotia College in Concord, North Carolina, from 1937 to 1939 and graduated from Johnson C. Smith University, in Charlotte, North Carolina, in 1941. She received her medical degree from Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1946 completed her internship and then became a general practitioner She was recruited as a staff physician while completing her internship at Lakin State Hospital a facility in West Virginia for mentally ill African Americans Her experience at Lakin brought ...


Elizabeth D. Schafer

physician and psychiatrist, was born in Waxahachie, Texas, the son of John Wesley Tildon, a physician, and Margaret Hilburn. Tildon received a bachelor's degree from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1912. He then studied pre-law at Harvard University for one year before entering medical school at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. He transferred to Harvard Medical School, earning an MD in 1923 and specializing in psychiatry and neurology.

At that time the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital aided by the National Medical Association was recruiting qualified physicians to evaluate patients Health care for African Americans was limited and doctors at Tuskegee attempted to improve health care in the Deep South Few black physicians practiced in Alabama and blacks suffered injuries from work and diseases prevalent in the region The establishment of a veterans hospital at Tuskegee created the need for professional physicians and nurses who could ...