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Shari Rudavsky

nursing educator and administrator, was born in Milledgeville, Georgia, the daughter of a poor family about whom nothing is known. In 1901 Andrews applied to Spelman College's MacVicar Hospital School of Nursing. On her application, she asked for financial assistance, explaining that her family could not help her pay. Her mother had a large family to support and “an old flicted husband,” who was not Andrews's father. Andrews also said that she had been married but did not currently live with her husband and expected no support from him. Letters praising Andrews and talking about her “good moral character” that came from the pillars of Milledgeville society proved instrumental in securing Andrews's admission.

In 1906 Andrews received her diploma from Spelman and set upon her life s work During her training she resolved that I wanted to work for my people how or where this was to be done ...

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Charles W. Jr. Carey

medical researcher, pediatrician, and hospital administrator, was born in Washington, D.C., to George and Mary Ferguson, occupations unknown. Despite having grown up poor, she decided to become a secretary or an accountant and somehow found enough money to enter Howard University. During her sophomore year, she took a chemistry course that redirected her education and led her to pursue a career in science and medicine. After receiving a BS in Chemistry in 1945, she entered the Howard University Medical School and received an MD in 1949. Upon completing her internship and residency in pediatrics at Washington's Freedmen's Hospital, which was also Howard's teaching hospital, she opened a private practice as a pediatrician in the nation's capital.

Because Ferguson s practice catered to African American patients she became interested in determining what constituted normal development in an African American infant She quickly realized however that no ...

Article

Raymond Pierre Hylton

physician, medical administrator, and activist, was born in Washington, D.C., the son of Dr. John Lawrence Sullivan Holloman Sr., minister of the Second Baptist Church, and Rosa Victoria Jones, a homemaker. Little is known of his early education, but John L. S. Holloman Jr. attended Virginia Union University, as had his father, graduating in 1940 with a bachelor of science degree. Three years later, he would matriculate at the University of Michigan Medical School, earning his MD in 1943. Entering the armed services in that year, Holloman served in the medical corps for the duration of World War II and was honorably discharged on 2 November 1946 with the rank of captain. He married Charlotte Patricia Wesley, a concert pianist, who was the daughter of the historian and minister Dr. Charles Harris Wesley The couple would go on to have four daughters ...

Article

E. Beardsley

physician and professional leader, was born in Columbia, South Carolina, the orphaned son of unknown parents. As with many African Americans of the post–Civil War era, it was Reconstruction that gave McClennan a chance at a larger life. In 1872, at the height of Reconstruction in South Carolina (and thanks to the influence of a guardian uncle), he became a page in the black-dominated state senate. There he won the notice and friendship of the influential legislator Richard H. “Daddy” Cain. That fall Cain ran successfully for Congress, and in 1873, after McClennan passed a competitive examination, Cain appointed his young protégé to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland.

Only the second African American student to enter Annapolis McClennan who was light skinned enough to pass for white but never denied his race found that the navy had made no accommodation to the new racial ...

Article

Wilnise Jasmin

psychiatrist, administrator, and physician, was born Mildred Mitchell in Brunswick, Georgia, the daughter of a minister and registered nurse. At the age of 12, she volunteered for the Red Cross to care for those injured in a tornado that swept through her hometown of Cordele, Georgia. This experience as well as her love for science and her need to help people, greatly influenced her decision to pursue medicine. She attended Barber-Scotia College in Concord, North Carolina, from 1937 to 1939 and graduated from Johnson C. Smith University, in Charlotte, North Carolina, in 1941. She received her medical degree from Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1946 completed her internship and then became a general practitioner She was recruited as a staff physician while completing her internship at Lakin State Hospital a facility in West Virginia for mentally ill African Americans Her experience at Lakin brought ...

Article

Edward C. Halperin

physician, was born in Rosindale, Columbus County (later Bladen County), North Carolina, the son of Israel Moore, a free black farmer, and Eliza (maiden name unknown). Moore's family was of African American, Native American, and European descent and had owned land and farmed in the Columbus County area since the early nineteenth century. He worked on the family farm and attended the local public elementary schools available to African Americans between the harvesting and planting seasons. After completing the eighth grade he attended the Whitin Normal School in Lumberton, North Carolina, and then the normal school in Fayetteville, North Carolina. His schooling was interspersed with periods when he worked on his father's farm and taught in the county school.

In 1885 Moore enrolled in Shaw University, an African American institution located in Raleigh, North Carolina. He entered the university's Leonard Medical School, which had opened in 1882 ...

Article

Audra J. Wolfe

geneticist and physician, was born in Newburgh, New York, the son of Robert Fulton and Henrietta Frances (Judd) Murray. Murray stayed close to home for most of his education, completing a BS with a pre-med concentration from Union College in Schenectady, New York, in 1953, before proceeding to the University of Rochester School of Medicine for his MD in 1958. Murray married Isobel Ann Parks on 26 August 1956, while still in medical school. Their marriage produced four children: Colin Charles, Robert Fulton III, Suzanne Frances, and Dianne Akwe.

After completing medical school, Murray and his wife moved to Denver, Colorado, where he began a long career in clinical medicine. He completed an internship at Denver General Hospital (1958–1959) before moving on to the University of Colorado Medical Center for a residency in internal medicine (1959–1962 For ...

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Elvatrice Parker Belsches

pioneering surgeon, medical researcher, hospital administrator, and community leader, was born in Wilmington, Delaware, the youngest child and only son of Dr. Jeannette Bacon Stubbs and Florence Blanche Williams Stubbs's three children. The elder Stubbs (commonly referred to as J. Bacon Stubbs) was a physician highly respected by Wilmington's blacks and whites. He served on the city's Board of Health, owned vast amounts of real estate, and financed the mortgages for several black-owned buildings. The younger Stubbs had exemplary role models in both parents: Academic excellence and social consciousness permeated every facet of their daily lives. Dr. J. Bacon Stubbs earned a B.A. from Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute (now Virginia State University) in 1891 prior to earning a medical degree from Howard University in 1894 His wife more commonly referred to by her middle name Blanche was an educator with a ...

Article

Elizabeth D. Schafer

physician and psychiatrist, was born in Waxahachie, Texas, the son of John Wesley Tildon, a physician, and Margaret Hilburn. Tildon received a bachelor's degree from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1912. He then studied pre-law at Harvard University for one year before entering medical school at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. He transferred to Harvard Medical School, earning an MD in 1923 and specializing in psychiatry and neurology.

At that time the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital aided by the National Medical Association was recruiting qualified physicians to evaluate patients Health care for African Americans was limited and doctors at Tuskegee attempted to improve health care in the Deep South Few black physicians practiced in Alabama and blacks suffered injuries from work and diseases prevalent in the region The establishment of a veterans hospital at Tuskegee created the need for professional physicians and nurses who could ...

Article

Elvatrice Parker Belsches

physician, author, hospital administrator, civic and organizational leader, and humanitarian, was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, the elder son of Jesse E. Turner, a chef, and Jennie Edwards Turner. The Turner family migrated during Turner's youth to New York City, where he continued his education in the city's public schools. Turner received his preliminary college education in the College of the City of New York and then enrolled in the Leonard Medical School of Shaw University at age seventeen (Cobb, p. 160). Shaw University, a historically black institution in Raleigh, North Carolina, was founded in 1865 by Reverend Henry Tupper under the auspices of the American Baptist Home Mission Society in an effort to educate the freedmen after the Civil War Reverend Tupper was acutely aware that in addition to educating the head heart and hands it was critical to train practitioners ...

Article

Joann Buckley and W. Douglas Fisher

physician, military officer, hospital founder and administrator, and community leader, was born in Wilson, North Carolina to Napoleon Ward, a freeborn man of color and Mittie Roena, originally a slave to David G. W. Ward.

In 1885 Ward was thirteen and illiterate when he left home for Indianapolis. He found work there cleaning stables. He was fortunate to meet Dr. George Hasty, founder of the Physiomedical College of Indiana. Hasty hired him as his driver and servant. According to David Bodenhamer's Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Hasty actually moved him into his house where he learned to read and write. Ward went on to graduate from Hasty's Physiomedical College of Indiana in 1897 and opened his own medical practice.

By the mid-1890s the Indianapolis Freeman the city s leading African American newspaper described Ward as a very promising young physician of this city a man of ...