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Michael J. Murphy

automobile worker and activist, was born General Gordon Baker Jr. in Detroit, Michigan, one of five children of General Gordon Baker Sr., an automobile worker, and Clara Baker, a housewife. Baker attended Southwestern High School in Detroit and went on to take classes at Highland Park Community College and Wayne State University. In the early 1960s he took a job with Ford Motor Company and continued to work in the automobile industry for almost forty years. In 1941 Baker s father had moved his family to Detroit from Georgia in search of a job in the booming war production industries taking part in the massive migration of African Americans from the rural South to cities in the North during the first half of the twentieth century Becoming an autoworker allowed Baker Sr to dramatically improve his family s standard of living especially in comparison to his prospects ...


Lahcen Ezzaher

Moroccan anticolonialist leader, was born in Rabat. Although he was raised in a family of modest income, he managed to attend a French elementary school for children of notable families at the age of nine. In 1938, he graduated from Moulay Youssef High School in Rabat. He attended Algiers University in Algeria, where he graduated with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics in 1942. He returned to Morocco and taught mathematics at Gouraud High School and then joined the teaching faculty at the Royal College. In La mémoire d’un roi: Entretiens avec Eric Laurent, the late King Hassan II, who was one of Ben Barka’s students, described him as a man with “a vast knowledge, a charming personality, and a passionate nature” (p. 108).

The year 1935 marked the beginning of Ben Barka s involvement in the national movement for independence He was the youngest member of ...


Stewart King

was a free man of mixed race from the northern province of Saint-Domingue, the future Haiti. His family owned several dozen slaves and over a hundred acres of farmland. He was a military veteran who served in the American Revolution and in the colonial militia. During the early stages of the Haitian Revolution, he and Vincent Ogé led a free colored uprising in 1790.

Chavannes was born in 1748 in Grand-Rivière du Nord, a mountain valley located near the border with the Spanish colony of Saint-Domingue, the future Dominican Republic. The region was experiencing rapid economic growth in his youth, as coffee became an important crop. His parents were both members of prominent free mixed-race families in the region, and they built a prosperous coffee operation. Upon his father’s death before 1783 Jean Baptiste became the manager of the family s properties He was able to give his ...


George Lester Jackson grew up on the West Side of Chicago, the son of Lester Jackson, a postal worker, and Georgia Jackson. He was the second oldest of five children. Street-smart and rebellious, Jackson had several run-ins with the law for petty crimes by the time he was ten. His family moved to Los Angeles in 1956, where Jackson's troubles with the law continued, and included several arrests for robbery. Paroled in June 1960 after serving time for a gas station holdup, Jackson was arrested later that year for a gas station robbery that netted seventy-one dollars. Due to his previous convictions, he received an indeterminate sentence of one year to life. He was nineteen, and remained in prison for the rest of his life.

While in prison, Jackson studied the writings of Karl Marx, Frantz Fanon, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro and ...


Lorna Lueker Zukas

bookkeeper and revolutionary who helped to start the Zimbabwean liberation movement, was born 8 July 1926 on the Chiota Reserve near Salisbury (Harare) in Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe). George Nyandoro was born into a family of fiercely independent individuals who were unafraid to struggle against while political domination. He was the son of MaShona Chief Mazhazhe Nyandoro, whom the colonial authorities deposed in 1946 after he complained about a lack of benefits for returning World War II veterans Mazhazhe protested the fact that white servicemen received farms as a reward for service during the war while black soldiers received bicycles Nyandoro was the grandson of Chief Kunzwi Nyandoro a leader in the 1896 1897 resistance war against colonial invaders Nyandoro attended primary school up to standard six grade six at St Mary s Anglican Mission School He left school to work in a store in Salisbury to support himself and his ...