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Nicole L. Phillip-Dowe

was born in Victoria, St. Mark’s Parish, Grenada, on 10 August 1944 to Flora Coard (née Fleming) and Frederick McDermott Coard, an official attester, justice of the peace, and civil servant, as well as president of the Credit Union League and the Civil Service Credit Union. Coard attended the Grenada Boys Secondary School, and he also taught there for one year after graduating. In 1966 he attained a B.Sc. in economics at Brandeis University in the United States. During his time at Brandeis he was both the Wein Scholar and the Eleanor Roosevelt Research Scholar. In 1967 he attained his master’s degree in comparative politics at Sussex University in England. During his tenure in Britain he wrote a book that offered a scathing critique on the British education system, titled How the West Indian Child Is Made Educationally Subnormal in the British School System (1971).

On 6 July ...


Françoise Vergès

writer, psychiatrist, and activist, was born on 20 July 1925 at Fort de France Martinique at the time a French colony The descendant of a slave of African origins Fanon was the fifth of eight children His parents who were of mixed heritage belonged to the urban middle class His father Félix Casimir Fanon worked in the French customs Eléanore Médélice his mother was a shopkeeper She was very proud of her Alsatian roots on an island where the hierarchy of color was very strong Both parents discouraged their children from speaking Creole and encouraged them to integrate into French culture Fanon studied at the elitist Lycée Schoelcher where he had Aimé Césaire as one of his teachers At eighteen Fanon joined the Free French army and was sent for army training to Algeria Fanon became disillusioned with the cause of freeing Europe from Nazism and wrote to his ...


Biodun Jeyifo

Frantz Fanon is one of the preeminent thinkers of social revolution and human freedom of the twentieth century. Taking its roots in the contradictions of the colonial order, his thought matured into a comprehensive, intricate, and unique system that has achieved resonance well beyond the formal end of colonialism. The uniqueness of his thought is reflected in the appellation based on his name, “Fanonist.” To all scholars of modern African thought, Fanon has a central place in a genealogy of thinkers and statesmen that stretches from the late eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth-century modern, yet he clearly transcends geopolitical and regional discursive boundaries. His thought has inspired mass movements of workers, the unemployed, and the uneducated, while he is carefully and avidly studied in the most arcane disciplines and fields of academia.

Born on the Caribbean island of Martinique, Fanon (1925–1961 went to France as a young man ...


Richard Watts

Born in Fort-de-France on the island of Martinique into a conventional, bourgeois family, Frantz Fanon grew up with assimilationist values that encouraged him to reject his African heritage. This influence was countered by one of Fanon’s high school teachers, Aimé Césaire, who introduced Fanon to the philosophy of Négritude and taught him to embrace the aspects of self that the colonizer had previously forced him to reject. The encounter with Césaire proved to be a turning point in Fanon’s intellectual development. In 1940 following France s capitulation to the Germans in World War II the part of the French Navy that had declared its allegiance to the collaborationist Vichy regime began the occupation of Martinique As a result 5 000 French soldiers commandeered the resources of the island leaving the resident population to fend for itself It was in this context that Fanon first experienced the full force ...


journalist, lawyer, politician, essayist, and Egypt’s most influential historian in the modern era, was a self-trained historian who forged, from scratch, a much-needed historical understanding in a highly nationalized era. The core of his work was comprised of a monumental historical corpus that offered a bird’s eye view of Egypt’s entire modern history. Written between 1929 and 1959, this work was instrumental in setting the basic parameters of modern historical understanding, for it answered basic questions such as where modern history began and accounted for the forces that propelled it.

Al-Rafiʿi was born in Cairo in 1889, to a middle-class Muslim family with strong connections to al-Azhar the leading academy in the Islamic world He belonged to the first urban generation to evince interest in modern education while simultaneously striving to maintain their Islamic culture Many of them were attracted to the study of law which provided ...