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Robert Fikes

dentist, civil rights activist, and art and book collector, was born Jack Johnson Kimbrough in Lexington, Mississippi, the son of Samuel Gulbridge Kimbrough, a blacksmith, and Mary Hoover. Jack was named after the famed African American boxer Jack Johnson. When he was seven, the Kimbroughs, intimidated by local Ku Klux Klansmen and seeking better economic opportunities, moved from Mississippi to Alameda, California, where relatives resided. After graduating from Alameda High School in 1926 Jack attended Sacramento Junior College He continued his studies at the University of California at Berkeley where he studied chemistry while working as a janitor waiter cook and landscaper His interest in science as well as the relatively shorter time that it took to earn a dentistry degree than a medical degree persuaded him enroll in the University of California Dental School in San Francisco from which he graduated with ...

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Adebe DeRango-Adem

was born Beatrice Murphy in Monessen, then a booming steel town near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 1910 U.S. Census records a two-year-old Beatrice Murphy living with her father, Benjamin Murphy, her mother, Maude, and her older brother, Selmo, all of whom are listed as “Negro” in McMahan borough near Monessen. Her mother died that year and by 1914 Beatrice was living in Washington, D.C., where she would spend the rest of her life. Murphy graduated from Dunbar High School—the place where she would publish her first poem—in 1928. She worked as a columnist and book review editor at the Washington Tribune from 1933 to 1935 During this time she was also a regular columnist for the Associated Negro Press and contributed poetry and book reviews to numerous serials and collections Historian Maureen Honey notes that Murphy was evidently married in the 1930s presumably to a man named Campbell and ...

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Born in Monessen, Pennsylvania, Beatrice Murphy lived most of her life in Washington, D.C. In 1928 she graduated from Dunbar High School and published her first poem. From 1933 to 1935 she was a columnist and for the next two years an editor at the Washington Tribune. Converting to Catholicism in 1938, she also became book review editor that year for the Afro-American and published her first poetry anthology, Negro Voices. She was also a secretary at Catholic University and part owner of a circulating library and stenography shop. She became a regular columnist for the Associated Negro Press and contributed poetry and reviews to numerous serials and collections. In the 1940s and 1950s she worked for the Office of Price Administration and then the Veterans Administration. In 1954 she was suspended without pay from her job as procurement clerk for supposedly having joined a subversive ...

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Jeff Bloodworth

librarian, civil rights activist, state senator, and congressman, was born in Collierville, Tennessee, one of the eight children of Ezekiel Owens and Hannah Owens. During Owens's childhood his family moved to Memphis, where Owens graduated from Hamilton High School in 1952 at the age of sixteen. After graduation and upon the receipt of a Ford Foundation scholarship, Owens attended Morehouse College in Atlanta, where he majored in mathematics, earning his bachelor's degree in 1956. In 1957 Owens earned a master's degree in Library Science from Atlanta University.

After earning his master's degree Owens married Ethel Werfel, whom he met at Morehouse College, and moved to New York City. Employed in the Brooklyn Public Library system, Owens also became active in politics and civil rights in the early to mid-1960s. In 1964 he was named community coordinator for a federal program to encourage ...

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C. M. Winston

artist, curator, art historian, filmmaker, writer, and activist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the only child of Howard Pindell and Mildred, both educators. By the age of eight Pindell already aspired to be an artist, and she attended Saturday drawing classes at the Fleischer Art Memorial.

Pindell graduated cum laude with a BFA from Boston University and earned an MFA from Yale University's School of Art and Architecture in 1967. She moved to New York City in 1967 after graduating from Yale and she worked primarily as a painter of nonobjective and figurative works during the early years of her career That year she landed a job at the Museum of Modern Art MoMA as an exhibition assistant in the department of national and international circulating exhibitions At MoMA she rose through the ranks from curatorial assistant to associate curator in ...

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Linda Spencer

educator and civil rights leader, was born Bess Bolden in Xenia, Ohio, the daughter of William Pinkney Bolden and Fannie Abigail Bizzell. No other information is available about her family. She graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio in 1908. Booker T. Washington, the founder of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, recruited her to help organize the library at the school. Over the next fifty-three years Bolden held a number of positions at Tuskegee, including librarian, teacher, administrator, and museum curator.

Founded in 1881 Tuskegee Institute provided blacks a variety of educational opportunities at a time when most educational institutions admitted only whites At first the school taught vocational and agricultural skills to enable blacks to earn a living In the 1920s the school shifted from teaching vocational skills to academics and became an accredited institute of higher learning While working at Tuskegee Bolden also taught literature ...