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Richard A. Bradshaw and Juan Fandos-Rius

politician in the Central African Republic (CAR), was born 3 December 1928 in Zémio in the southeastern part of the French colony of Ubangi-Shari to Ngbaka Manza parents from Damara in central Ubangi-Shari. He attended the École des cadres supérieurs (school for upper-level cadres) in Brazzaville, then the École normale d’instituteurs (teacher training college) at Mouyondzi in the Middle Congo. These were schools that provided training for promising students from all over French Equatorial Africa (FEA), and so young Adama-Tamboux came to know many future leaders of the independent states which would later emerge in this region during the process of decolonization.

In 1950 Adama Tamboux attended a professional training course for one year at the École normale de Saint Cloud Saint Cloud teacher training school in Paris He then returned to Ubangi Shari where he was appointed head of the school district in Ouham province a primarily Gbaya ...

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Ana Raquel Fernandes

Pan‐Africanist and the first black person to hold civic office in Britain. He was born in Liverpool, the son of a Barbadian, Richard Archer, and an Irishwoman, Mary Theresa Burns, but little is known of his early life, though he is believed to have lived in North America and the West Indies. Around 1898 he and his African‐Canadian wife, Bertha, moved to Battersea, south London, where Archer established a photographic studio. His concern to eradicate social and racial injustices led to a lifelong career in local government and national and global politics. In 1906 he was elected as a Progressive (Liberal) councillor for the Latchmere ward, and in 1913 Archer became Mayor of Battersea, Britain's first black mayor. His interest in colonial politics led to his involvement in Pan‐Africanism. In 1900 he joined the Pan African Association and he was a significant presence at the ...

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John Gilmore

Politician, born in Jamaica into a family of wealthy plantation owners. Sent to England in 1723, he was educated at Westminster School and Oxford. He later studied medicine at Leiden in Holland, but broke off his course there when the death of his father obliged him to return to Jamaica in 1735. When his elder brother died in 1737, he inherited most of the family properties and continued to add to them by inheritance and purchase over the next 30 years. At the time of his death he was sole owner of thirteen sugar plantations in Jamaica, together with other real estate and about 3,000 slaves.

In 1737William Beckford became a member of the Jamaican House of Assembly, but by 1744 he had left Jamaica for Britain where he settled in London as a West India merchant selling the produce of his own estates ...

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Alceu de Deus Collares was born to João de Deus Collares and Severina T. Collares in 1927. He hails from Bagé, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which is located in the extreme southern portion of Brazil. The population of the state is comprised of mainly European immigrants. Recognizing his minority status and the overall racial prejudice against blacks in his state, Collares dubbed himself “the black from Rio Grande do Sul.” He started to work at an early age as a fruit and vegetable vendor, a telegram messenger, a luggage carrier, and a telegraph operator. After graduating in 1960 from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, he worked as an attorney specializing in tax law.

Collares's first political position was as city representative of Porto Alegre, the capital of Rio Grande do Sul, in 1964. In 1970 when Brazil was under ...

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As with other maroon settlements (communities of runaway slaves) in the Americas, few records exist that explore the history and culture of the Peruvian settlement called Huachipa (1712–1713). Even scarcer is the information on the settlement's most notable leader, Francisco Congo. Also called Chavelilla, Congo had escaped from servitude in Pisco, near the capital city of Lima, and arrived in Huachipa in early 1713, shortly after its establishment. He was welcomed into the community by its leader, Martín Terranovo.

Named mayor and captain of the community Congo handled both administrative and military duties A struggle for leadership began among members of different African tribal groups in the community which eventually became a fight between Martín and Francisco Congo During the fight Congo was severely injured and left for dead He mysteriously recovered and killed Martín His amazing recovery led to a belief that his triumph was ...

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LaRay Denzer

first woman mayor of the Sierra Leonean capital of Freetown, was born into a prominent old Krio (then spelled Creole) family on 7 January 1918 in Freetown. Young Constance grew up in a household deeply involved in local politics and culture. Her parents were Johnnie William Horton, sometime city treasurer, and Regina Elizabeth (Awoonor-Wilson) Horton, a granddaughter of a recaptive from Keta, Gold Coast (now Ghana). Constance was the youngest of their three children, all girls, but she also had two half brothers, one of whom was Asadata Dafora, who won acclaim in the 1930s for introducing African dance drama to the New York theater. Her paternal family traced its ancestry back to James Beale Horton (1835–1883), better known as Africanus Horton, the son of an Igbo recaptive who was influential in the British colonial service and the outspoken author of West African Countries and Peoples (1868 ...

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Devora Hodakov

of New Haven, Connecticut, was born in Macon, Bibb County, Georgia, to John Daniels and Ludelia Huckaby Daniels. In 1937 he moved with his family to the Elm New Haven Project in New Haven. Daniels had two sisters, Agnes and Joyce, and two brothers, Robert and Melvin. His father, a Georgia sharecropper, found work in Connecticut as a laborer for the New Haven railroad freight yards. The family lived at 79 Webster Street, New Haven.

John Daniels attended James Hillhouse High School in New Haven and graduated in 1955. He was on the school’s football team and won an award as All-State Halfback. He attended Villanova University in Pennsylvania on a football scholarship, graduating in 1960 with a B.S. in economics. He went on to receive a Master of Arts in Urban Studies from Occidental College in Los Angeles in 1972. On 30 June 1962 Daniels married ...

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David Michel

activist and politician, was born James Charles Evers to James Evers, a farmer, and Jessie Wright Evers, a maid, in Decatur, Newton County, Mississippi. In addition to James and his three siblings, Jessie Evers had three children from a previous marriage. The family was poor, like most of their neighbors during the Depression, but was strengthened by a powerful Christian belief in the dignity of every human being. The Evers subscribed to the Chicago Defender, a publication that kept the young Evers informed about life outside the segregated South. Charles developed a strong bond with his younger brother, Medgar Evers, and they each vowed to carry on the other's work if something happened to one of them. Charles attended local schools but would complete high school only later in life.

In 1940 Charles Evers enlisted in the U S Army and during World War ...

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Daniel Donaghy

civil rights activist. Evers was born in Decatur, Mississippi, to James Evers, a sawmill laborer, and Jessie Wright Evers, a domestic worker. The second of four children, Evers was especially close to his brother Medgar Evers. He learned courage and tenacity from his father and spirituality from his mother, who was a devout Christian. Those combined attributes served him well later in life when he decided to make a stand against racism on the grounds that it was both unacceptable and un-Christian.

Evers served in the U S Army during World War II While in the Philippines he fell in love with a Filipino woman but he did not ask her to marry him or come live with him in Mississippi because of the state s intolerant attitude toward interracial relationships After leaving the service he became an active member of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership ...

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SaFiya D. Hoskins

politician, was born Shirley Clarke in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Eugene Haywood Clarke, an attorney, and Ruth Lyons White. Clarke graduated from the Philadelphia High School for Girls in 1963, a historic and highly competitive institution. Clarke had early aspirations of becoming a dancer. Despite her lack of participation in high school student government, upon graduating, Clarke became active in the civil rights movement as an undergraduate at Howard University in Washington, D.C. In 1968 Clarke earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology from Howard, then, returned to her hometown to attend the University of Pennsylvania. She graduated from Penn in 1969 with a Master of Arts degree in Sociology.

In 1972, Clarke married the entertainment attorney David McCoy Franklin; together the couple settled in Atlanta, Georgia. The couple, who divorced in 1986, had three daughters; Kai Ayanna, Cabral Candice ...

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Todd Steven Burroughs

minister and former mayor of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Goode is best remembered for authorizing the 1985 dropping of a bomb on the headquarters of the MOVE organization.

Willie Wilson Goode was born to southern sharecroppers outside Seaboard, North Carolina. He graduated from Morgan State University in 1961, one year after he married Velma Williams. After serving in the U.S. Army from 1962 to 1963, he earned his master's degree in public administration at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School in 1968.

Goode first made his mark on Philadelphia in 1969 by serving as executive director of the Philadelphia Council for Community Advancement. The Pennsylvania governor Milton J. Shapp appointed him the head of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission. Goode's work as managing director of the city of Philadelphia from 1980 to 1983 made him popular among the city s elite That and Goode s cordial disposition ...

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Leila Kamali

Newspaper editor, statesman, and Mayor of Kingston, Jamaica. Jordon was born a freeman on 6 December 1800. He founded the Watchman and Jamaica Free Press in Kingston, which printed an editorial in 1832 calling to ‘knock off the fetters, and let the oppressed go free’. Jordon was tried for sedition—a crime that carried the death penalty—but was eventually acquitted.

He campaigned vigorously against slavery and, having won the Kingston seat in the House of Assembly in 1835, saw complete abolition in Jamaica in August 1838. He then founded the Morning Journal, became manager of Kingston Savings Bank, and director of the Planters' Bank.

Jordon was the first appointment to the Executive Committee under Sir Henry Barkly's governorship, and in 1854 the first man to be appointed both Mayor of Kingston and Custos. In 1860Queen Victoria made him a Companion of the Bath the first ...

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Christopher Fyfe

Lawyer and leading public figure among the Krio (then called ‘Creole’) people of Sierra Leone. His father was a wealthy businessman who sent him to London to study law. Called to the Bar in 1871, on his return home he built up a substantial legal practice. Quiet‐mannered, a dedicated Methodist, unobtrusive in appearance, he owed his success to his well‐grounded legal knowledge, not to histrionic display. Although he occasionally acted for the government, he preferred the independence and financial rewards of private practice.

From 1882 Lewis was a member of the Legislative Council. There, though he was ready to oppose the government, sometimes with great tenacity, in general he supported its measures, even to earning widespread hostility when he went against public feeling. When Freetown became a municipality in 1895 he was elected Mayor, and in 1896 was awarded the first African knighthood.

When the Protectorate was proclaimed in ...

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Born, raised, and educated in the Mongomo region of Equatorial Guinea, Francisco Macías Nguema as president relied on family connections and repression to maintain his dictatorship. As a youth, his Catholic teachers noted his paranoia, megalomania, and feelings of inferiority. In 1944 Macías Nguema began working for the Spanish colonial administration, which in 1960 appointed him mayor of Mongomo. In the 1960s Macías Nguema joined a series of nationalist parties, although he never directly opposed Spain, and was elected to parliament and appointed minister of public works. With support from conservative Spanish interests, Macías Nguema won the presidency shortly before Equatorial Guinea became independent in October 1968.

Soon afterward Macías Nguema used an allegedly faked coup d état attempt as a pretext for executing his opponents Macías Nguema s paranoia and cruelty defined his rule for the next eleven years Arbitrary arrests executions tortures and atrocities were conducted by ...

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Greta Koehler

politician and mayor of New Orleans, was born Marc Haydel Morial in New Orleans, Louisiana, as the second of five children to Sybil Haydel Morial, a teacher, and Ernest N. “Dutch” Morial, a lawyer and New Orleans's first African American mayor. Morial graduated from New Orleans's all-male Jesuit High School in 1976 and went on to complete a Bachelor's degree in Economics and African American Studies at the University of Pennsylvania in 1980. During this time he served as coordinator for his father's mayoral campaign. After receiving a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University in 1983, Morial worked for two years in a law firm in New Orleans before opening his own in 1985. During this time he served as board member for the Louisiana American Civil Liberties Union and received the Louisiana State Bar Association's Pro Bono Publico Award in 1988 for his ...

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Hannington Ochwada

Kenyan politician and first Kenyan woman elected as mayor and Member of Parliament (MP), was born at Gobei, Sakwa District, in Kenya’s Nyanza Province. She was educated at primary schools in Sakwa before enrolling in Ngiya Girls Secondary School. She later graduated as a teacher from Vihiga Teachers Training College in 1954. She married Onyango Baridi, with whom she had six children, and worked as a primary school teacher before being appointed principal of Ng’iya Women’s Teachers’ Training College. She also served as an assistant commissioner of the Girl Guide movement and chaired the Kisumu Branch of the Child Welfare Society in Kisumu District.

Onyango was drawn to community service even before she entered the realm of electoral politics. When she was elected to the Kisumu Municipal Council in 1963 she found it not only composed of European and Asian entrepreneurs but also dominated by men This led ...

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Anne K. Driscoll

politician and social worker, was born Carrie Saxon in Hartford, Connecticut, the only child of Mabel Lee Saxon. Growing up in Hartford's housing projects exposed Perry to the crushing effects of poverty and crime. But rather than being defeated by it, Perry persevered and went on to become a force for change. Perry graduated from high school in 1949 and then attended Howard University, where she earned a bachelor of science in Political Science in 1953. During this time she married James Perry Sr. They had one child, James Perry Jr. Perry entered Howard's School of Law that same year, but did not complete the law program. Instead she returned in 1955 to Hartford where she became a social worker While she served in many professions they all had one element in common The positions involved helping the people of Hartford to have better ...

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Crystal L. Joseph Bryant

politician and civil rights activist, was born Sharon Sayles in St. Paul, Minnesota, to William Wellford “Bill” Sayles Jr., a neighborhood activist, mechanic, and car salesman, and Pearl Marian Sayles. A nationally recognized expert on public safety, neighborhood livability, and economic development, she was the first African American and first female mayor of Minneapolis.

Sayles Belton graduated in 1973 from Macalester College, where she studied biology and sociology. In 1989 she participated in the Senior Executives in State and Local Government Program in the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. After graduating from Macalester, Sayles Belton worked as a parole officer at the Minnesota Department of Corrections, working primarily with sexual assault victims. In 1983 she became associate director at the Minnesota Program for Victims of Sexual Assault As the assistant director she worked to build twenty six centers to assist rape victims ...

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C. Ellen Connally

lawyer, mayor, broadcaster, judge, and ambassador. Carl Burton Stokes is best remembered as the first African American mayor of a major American city. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio, and was two years old when his father, Charles, died. Stokes and his older brother Louis were raised by their mother Louise Stone Stokes, who struggled to support her children by working as a domestic. During the depth of the Depression—when Stokes was growing up—the family suffered many hardships and lived in substandard tenement housing until they were able to move into the first federally funded housing projects for the poor in the city of Cleveland in 1938.

In 1944 at age eighteen Stokes dropped out of high school and worked for a short time before joining the U S Army A journey south to Fort McClellan Alabama for basic training and ...

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Hugh C. MacDougall

soldier and politician, was born in Columbia, Pennsylvania, the son of Peter Swails, an African American boatman, and his wife Joanna Atkins Swails, who was usually listed as white; both were from Maryland. After living in Columbia and Manheim the Swails family moved about 1856 to Elmira, New York.

In 1860 Stephen A. Swails worked as a waiter at the Keyes Hotel in Cooperstown, New York, where he married Sarah Thompson, from a local black family; they had two children. On 8 April 1863 Swails enlisted in the newly formed 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, one of the Union's first African American regiments, and was immediately promoted to first sergeant. On 18 July 1863 he fought in the attack on Fort Wagner south of Charleston South Carolina that established the regiment s reputation for valor and led to the formation of the United States Colored Troops ...