chief minister of Barbados (1948–1958); premier of Barbados (1954–1958); and prime minister of the West Indian Federation (1958–1962), was born on 28 April 1898 in Government Hill, Barbados. The third of seven children born to Fitz Herbert and Rosa Adams (née Turney), Adams attended St. Giles’ Primary and later Harrison College. In 1918 Adams was awarded the Barbados Scholarship, which enabled him to attend Oxford University to study law. At Oxford, he regularly participated in political debates and became a member of the Liberal Party there. He campaigned for the Liberal candidate Frank Gray in 1922–1923 and canvassed for C. B. Fry in 1924. He returned to Barbados in 1925. Adams met and eventually married Grace Thorne in 1929 One year later she gave birth to their only child John Michael Geoffrey Adams otherwise known as Tom Adams prime minister of ...
Adams, Grantley Herbert
Adams, John Michael Geoffrey Manningham
Leslie R. James
popularly known as “Tom,” was born on 24 September 1931 into the politically prominent Barbadian Adams family. He was the son of Sir Grantley Adams, a Barbadian lawyer who later served as the only Premier of the failed West Indian Federation (1958–1962) and Grace Thorne. Tom Adams’s political philosophy and career were significantly influenced by his father, Sir Grantley Adams, his early Barbadian education and upbringing, study at Oxford University, work at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and membership and leadership of the Barbados Labour Party (BLP).
The political upheavals of the 1930s altered the political landscape of the Caribbean and impacted the role that the Adams family and Barbados played in the region’s political evolution. By 1938 Tom s father Grantley Adams became a leading political figure in the struggle for civil rights in Barbados when he founded the Barbados Progressive League later called the Barbados ...
Anthony, Kenny Davis
A. L. Dawn French
was born on 8 January 1951 at Riviere Doree, a community in the southeast section of the island. He was one of nine boys of David William Barnard and Andrazine Anthony, better known as (and officially known as) Lucy Rosemond, who hailed from Saltibus. They also had two girls, both of whom died in infancy.
Anthony grew up in the south of the island, in the villages of Degatierre and River Dorée. His education started at the River Dorée Anglican Combined School, but was interrupted when he moved to the nearby island of St. Vincent. From 1959 to 1963 he attended the Kingstown Preparatory School in the capital, Kingstown. In 1963 he returned to Saint Lucia and attended the Laborie Boys School for one year; in 1964 he moved to the Vieux Fort Secondary School. Upon graduation in 1968 he worked at the business house of Minvielle and Chastanet ...
Barrow, Dean Oliver
was born in Belize City, Belize, on 2 March 1951, to Arthur Innes Barrow, a pharmacist, and Joyce Erica Barrow née Lindo, a housewife. Barrow was the second in a family of three children. His early education in Belize City occurred at St. Michael’s College; he then went on to study law at the University of the West Indies at the Cave Hill campus in Barbados where he earned a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) in 1973. He attended the Norman Manley Law School, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica, and achieved a Certificate of Legal Education in 1975. He attended the University of Miami School of Law in 1981 and earned a Master of Laws (LL.M.) as well as a Masters in International Relations.
Barrow was admitted to practice law in Belize in 1975 beginning his career at the law firm of his uncle Dean Lindo He eventually formed ...
Boye, Mame Madior
first female prime minister of Senegal, was born in the coastal city of Saint Louis, Senegal. She came from a family of lawyers, including her father, one brother who worked for the Supreme Court of Senegal, and another brother who received an advanced law degree, became a professor of international law, and eventually became the head of the University of Dakar. Boye herself attended primary school in her home city before graduating from the Lycée Faidherbe secondary school and enrolling in an undergraduate law degree program at the University of Dakar in 1963 She then studied law at the Centre National d Études Judiciaries CNEJ in Paris Once she finished her studies in France she returned to Senegal and began to work as an assistant prosecutor for the government Boye became an assistant judge in a court at Dakar and later rose to be president of the Senegalese Court ...
Chona, Mainza Mathias
Kenneth P. Vickery
lawyer, politician, vice president (1970–1973), and prime minister (1973–1975, 1977–1978) of independent Zambia, was born in Nampeyo, an area near Monze, in the Southern Province of Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia), on 21 January 1930. He was the son of Hameja Chilala, a spiritual leader, legendary hunter, and Tonga chief—though “chiefship” in this region is problematic and probably owes as much to British colonial rule as to indigenous origins. His mother was Nhandu. Chona attended the local school sponsored by the main Catholic Jesuit mission in Southern Province, Chikuni, and then Chikuni itself, before completing secondary education at Munali, the elite Lusaka high school founded by the Northern Rhodesian colonial administration in 1939 He was clearly an outstanding student After graduation he worked for a time as an interpreter for the High Court in Livingstone and this may have fueled his desire to become a lawyer He found time ...
Kiwanuka, Benedicto Mugumba
Jonathon L. Earle
Uganda’s first prime minister (1962), and Ugandan chief justice (1971–1972), was born in what is now Bukomansimbi County, Masaka District. His father, Fulgensio Musoke, was a parish chief (omwami ow’omuluka) and direct descendent of the hereditary leader of the Mutima (heart) clan. Although a local chief, Kiwanuka’s father was irresponsible with family earnings and land revenues, resulting in an arduous and commonly rural childhood for Kiwanuka and his siblings.
Kiwanuka received his primary education at the Catholic mission school, Villa Maria Primary School, after which, from 1938 to 1941, he enrolled at St. Peter’s Junior Secondary in Nsambya, before enlisting in the King’s African Rifles (KAR) from 1941 to 1946 During his service in the KAR Kiwanuka was deployed to Kenya western Uganda Egypt and Palestine After being decommissioned Kiwanuka worked briefly with the Ugandan High Court as a clerk and interpreter before matriculating in Lesotho ...
Egyptian politician, lawyer, economist, cabinet minister, and prime minister, was born in May 1888 to an urban landowning family long involved in politics. His father was Muhammad Mahir, former undersecretary of state for war, and his older brother was Ali Mahir, also a politician. Ahmad Mahir graduated from the Khedivial Law School and then went to France to pursue doctoral studies at the University of Montpellier. Back home, he taught at the law school and the Higher School of Commerce before quitting his academic career during the 1919 Revolution to become one of the closest and most loyal aides of Saʿd Zaghlul. As such, he was one of the founders of the Wafd Party and responsible for organizing its “secret apparatus,” the body tasked with applying violent measures against the British occupiers and the party’s rivals. When the Wafd won the first constitutional elections in January 1924 Mahir was ...
Egyptian judge, politician, and prime minister, was born on 29 November 1882 to an urban landowning family long involved in politics. His father was Muhammad Mahir, former undersecretary of state for war, and his younger brother was Ahmad Mahir, also a prominent politician who pursued a different agenda. Mahir attended the Khedival Secondary School and graduated from the Khedival Law School in 1905. After three years’ practice, he became a judge in the native courts and later, during the 1919 Revolution, joined the Wafd Party, together with his brother. However, in 1921, he dissociated himself from Saʿd Zaghlul and began associating closely with Sultan Fuʾad, who became king in 1922. Mahir remained in his service and the service of his son Faruq (king as of 1936) to their end (some of the British nicknamed him “the king’s jackal”). In 1922 Mahir was assigned to chair ...
Nahhas, Mustafa al-
Egyptian lawyer, judge, nationalist leader, and prime minister, was born in Samanud in Gharbiyya Province on 15 June 1879. Of modest family background (his father was a timber merchant), Nahhas is a prime example of the trajectory of upward mobility experienced by the effendiyya, Egypt’s new middle class created by processes of modernization in the nineteenth century. Educated at the Nasiriyya Elementary School and later the Khedivial Secondary School, he was first in his class at the Khedivial Law School when he graduated in 1900. In 1904 he was appointed a judge in the National Court in Tanta, and served as a judge until dismissed from the courts in 1919 due to his political involvement.
In the pre–World War I period, Nahhas’s initial political sympathies were with the Watani Party of Mustafa Kamil and Muhammad Farid. When Saʿd Zaghlul organized the new Wafd Party to demand ...
Egyptian lawyer, cabinet minister, and prime minister, was born in Cairo in 1863. He belonged to the Topuzzadeh family and was thus a member of the Turko-Circassian (Ottoman-Egyptian) elite that dominated Egypt through the nineteenth century. Educated in Egypt, Geneva, and Paris, he held a French law degree. Rushdi began his public career as a lawyer in the Finance Ministry and later served as an inspector of education and as a judge in both the Mixed Courts and the National Court of Appeal. His first wife was the French feminist writer Eugenie Le Brun; after her death in 1908 he married a sister-in-law of Sharif Husayn of the Hijaz.
Rushdi was a fixture in Egyptian ministries before and during World War I. He served as minister of justice from 1908 to 1910, as foreign minister from 1910 to 1912, and again as minister of justice from 1912 ...
Tharwat, ʿAbd al-Khaliq
lawyer, minister, and twice prime minister of Egypt, was a descendant of one of the prominent Ottoman-Egyptian families that dominated Egyptian politics in the nineteenth century. Educated at the ʿAbdin Secondary School, the Higher Teacher’s College, and the School of Law, Tharwat had a distinguished legal career. He initially worked in the State Domains Administration and then in the Justice Ministry, where he eventually became director of administration for the National Courts and chancellor of the National Courts of Appeal. He served briefly as Governor of Asyut Province (1907–1908) and later as head of the Public Prosecutor’s Office (1908–1914).
Tharwat’s political career dates to 1907, when he was a founding member of the new Umma Party. His ministerial career commenced in 1914. He was Minister of Justice from 1914 to 1919, Minister of Interior in 1921 and again in 1922 Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1926 ...
Terza Silva Lima-Neves
Cape Verdean lawyer and politician, was born Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho Veiga in the city of Mindelo, on São Vicente Island, in the Republic of Cape Verde, on 21 October 1949. He attended high school in both Mindelo and Cape Verde’s capital city of Praia, on Santiago Island. After graduating from high school, Veiga travelled to Lisbon, Portugal, to pursue a law degree. During this period, Cape Verde was extremely poor and was still under Portuguese colonial rule. There were no colleges or universities for people to attend, and not all the islands had secondary schools. Students from Cape Verde and other Portuguese colonies on the African continent were forced to travel abroad to pursue studies beyond high school. In 1971, Carlos Veiga received a law degree from the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Classica de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal.
The following year Veiga went to Angola ...
Verwoerd, Hendrik Frensch
Born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Hendrik Verwoerd was a professor of sociology and editor of an Afrikaans nationalist newspaper in South Africa before he was appointed senator in 1948. Rising to cabinet posts, he was made minister of native affairs in 1950 and was responsible for engineering much ...
Verwoerd, Hendrik Frensch
Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, was born on 8 September 1901 in Amsterdam, Holland. His father, Wilhelm, took his family to South Africa in 1903 with the ambition of becoming a clergyman in the Dutch Reformed Church. After a mobile childhood, Hendrik completed his schooling in the Orange Free State in 1917 and proceeded to the University of Stellenbosch in the Western Cape. A gifted student, he achieved his PhD in psychology (cum laude) in 1924 at the age of twenty-three. After marrying in 1927, he and his wife, Betsie, produced seven children.
Verwoerd’s working life began with an appointment in the Psychology Department at the University of Stellenbosch. In 1932 he became the country s first professor of Social Work in the University s newly created Department of Sociology and Social Work Verwoerd developed an academic interest in the issue of race ...
Egyptian lawyer, nationalist leader, and prime minister, was born in the village of Ibyana, Gharbiyya Province, where his father was village ʿumda or leader. Zaghlul’s initial education was traditional: study at the village kuttab followed by four years at al-Azhar. Both his family and educational backgrounds were important components of his political persona; from a moderately well-off peasant family, raised in a village in the Delta, and educated in the indigenous educational system, Zaghlul was a leader with the popular touch, a man with whom the indigenous Egyptian majority, long dominated by foreigners, could and did identify.
Zaghlul had a long public career before he became the dominant figure in Egyptian politics after World War I. Associated with the failed ʿUrabi movement of the later 1870s and early 1880s, when he edited the official gazette al-Waqiʿi al-Misriyya he was arrested but cleared on the charge of ...
Egyptian lawyer, politician, and prime minister, was born in Alexandria into a family of Circassian background on 14 November 1864. As was the case with many members of the Turko-Circassian elite who dominated Egyptian politics in the nineteenth century, his education was cosmopolitan; the Lazariyya College in Alexandria, the Jesuit Collège St. Joseph in Beirut, the School of Languages in Cairo, finally Aix- en-Provence University in France, where he received his law degree in 1887. First employed in the public prosecutor’s office, Ziwar was appointed to the courts in 1899 and served as advocate-general of the National Tribunals and later as a judge in the National Court of Appeal. He also served as governor of Alexandria.
Ziwar’s political career began in 1917, when he was appointed minister of Waqfs. He served in several Egyptian cabinets over the next decade: minister of education in 1919 minister of ...