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Nigerian general, military ruler, and businessman was born on 17 August 1941 in Minna, Nigeria, to Muhamadu, a teacher, and his wife, Aishatu. After a childhood in Minna, Babangida joined the Nigerian military in 1962 and graduated from the Military Forces Training College in Kaduna in 1963. He was then sent to the Indian Military Academy in 1964 and to the British Royal Armoured Center in 1966 before returning to Nigeria in 1968, where he served as a battalion captain and was wounded in 1969 at Uzuakoli.

After the end of the Biafran civil war in 1970, Babangida was promoted to major and taught at the Nigerian Defence Academy. In 1972, he was sent to the US Army Armor School at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and upon his return was made a regimental commander in 1973. In 1975 General Murtala Muhammed led a coup against ...

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Kenneth P. Vickery

trade unionist, politician, and second president of independent Zambia (1991–2002), was born Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba in April 1943 In Chiluba s own book he states that he was born to Titus Chiluba Nkonde and Diana Kaimba in Kitwe on the Zambian Copperbelt His family background has been challenged even legally by his political opponents this came in response to the Chiluba government s efforts to require that presidential candidates and their parents be Zambian born moves largely seen as targeting Chiluba s rival and predecessor as president Kenneth Kaunda whose parents came from Malawi In terms of his own upbringing however Chiluba is unquestionably a product of the Copperbelt one of Africa s oldest and largest urban industrial regions His early formal education was spotty and incomplete though he later successfully pursued correspondence courses Chiluba has married three times most recently to Regina Mwanza a prominent leader in ...

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Susan Shepler

Sierra Leone's fourth elected president and a former insurance company boss, was born in Makeni, Bombali District, Northern Sierra Leone, 2 October 1953. His father, Sylvanus Fornah Koroma, commonly known as “Teacher,” was of Loko and Temne ethnicity, and served as a bible teacher at the Wesleyan Church in Makeni for many years. He was a strong supporter of Siaka Probyn Stevens's presidency and of the All People's Congress (APC) political party. His mother, Alice Rosaline Koroma (1932–2012) was ethnically Limba, and spent her career as a primary school teacher in Makeni. Madam Koroma served in the Makeni City Council in the 1960s, also as a member of the All People's Congress (APC).

Koroma attended the Sierra Leone Church Primary School in Makeni, and the Government Secondary School in Magburaka. In 1976 Koroma graduated from Fourah Bay College University of Sierra Leone with a degree ...

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Gerhard Seibert

businessman and president of São Tomé and Príncipe, was born on 21 March 1942 in the Água Telha neighborhood of Madalena on São Tomé. The son of a Portuguese father and a Santomean mother, he attended primary and part of secondary school in São Tomé. At the age of 12, he continued his secondary education in Portugal. In 1965 he completed his military service in the Portuguese colonial army in Mozambique. From 1967 to 1968, he worked for the Portuguese company Rádio Marconi. Thereafter, he consecutively studied psychology at the Higher Institute of Applied Psychology in Lisbon and the Faculty of Human Sciences of the Université Libre of Brussels, Belgium, though without finishing the course. In March 1972 he married Mariam Lampert, a faculty colleague. From 1972 to 1975, Menezes worked in Brussels for five different international companies, while also receiving practical training for a period in 1973 ...

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Owen J. M. Kalinga

businessman, politician, and president of the Republic of Malawi from 1994 to 2004, was born Elson Bakili Muluzi on 17 March 1943 in Kapoloma Village, Machinga district, one of the predominantly Muslim areas of Malawi. He went to local schools, and after receiving his primary school certificate, he became a clerk in the colonial civil service. Like many of his generation, he was active in nationalist politics, and at the end of British rule in the early 1960s, he joined the newly formed Malawi Young Pioneers, rose in its ranks, and was sent by the organization to Thirsted Technical College, Denmark, to train as a technical instructor. He also studied briefly at Huddersfield Technical College in England. After this, he returned to teach at Nasawa Technical College, Magomero, the main training base of the Malawi Young Pioneers, rising in 1973 to the position of principal.

In 1975 Muluzi ...

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Jeremy Rich

Congolese political leader, was born on 31 December 1938 in the small village of Ombele, near Owando (Fort-Rousset under French rule) in the northern region of the Republic of Congo. His father was Dominique Osséré m’Opomo and his mother was Antoinette Mboualé-Abemba. His father was a relative of the chief of the village and a veteran of the French army. Ngouabi attended primary school in Owando from 1947 to 1953. He enrolled on 14 September 1953 at the General Leclerc school for the children of veterans located in Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of the Congo. Ngouabi graduated and enrolled in the French military in 1957.

First stationed at the massive French military base in Bouar now in the Central African Republic Ngouabi soon was deployed and saw military action Instead of serving in the French colonial effort in Algeria like many of his compatriots Ngouabi was transferred ...

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politician and president of Equatorial Guinea, was born on 5 June 1942 to a Fang-speaking family in the village of Acoa-Kam in Spanish Guinea (now Equatorial Guinea) Like many other Fang people living near the border between Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, Obiang Nguema’s parents were born in northern Gabon. They chose to flee into Spanish Guinea to escape paying poll taxes and perhaps also to take advantage of the lower prices for coffee and cocoa crops in Spanish territory. Obiang Nguema was the third son of ten brothers. He attended Catholic primary schools in Mengomo and then went to secondary school in Bata, the provincial capital of the mainland enclave of Rio Muni. In the early 1960s, Obiang Nguema joined the colonial military. As the Spanish government began to implement reforms in 1963 to prepare for independence Obiang received authorization to study at a military academy in Zaragosa Spain ...

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Cyril Daddieh

an economist and international banker-turned-politician in Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), was born in Dimbokro on 1 January 1942. This birthplace and his subsequent claim to Ivoirian nationality is highly contested in Abidjan, the Ivoirian commercial capital. He attended secondary school in Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and then proceeded to the University of Pennsylvania on a Fulbright scholarship as a national of Burkina Faso. He received his bachelor’s degree (BA) in mathematics, followed by an MA and a PhD in economics, awarded in 1967 and 1972. respectively.

“ADO,” as Ouattara is popularly known to his supporters, has had an illustrious career in international banking and finance spanning nearly four decades. He first joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in April 1968 as chief economist Ouattara left five years later to join the Central Bank of West African States BCEAO as head of mission in Paris where he ...

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Peter J. Duignan

fifth president of the Republic of Liberia, was born in Newark, Ohio, the son of John Roye, a wealthy merchant. His mother's name is unknown. His father died in 1829, leaving some personal property and land to Roye. He went to public schools in Ohio, attended Oberlin College, and taught for a few years in Chillicothe. He also tried his hand as a sheep trader and shopkeeper in various parts of the Midwest. After his mother died in 1840 he was influenced by the emigration movement to escape American prejudice. He rejected the idea of going to Haiti and instead traveled to Liberia in 1846 just before an independent republic was installed there in July 1847, taking with him a stock of goods.

At the time of Roye s arrival the new republic faced a variety of ills The dominant Americo Liberians remained a small minority threatened ...

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Jeremy Rich

economist and president of Benin, was born Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo to a Beninese family in the city of Lomé in the neighboring country of Togo on 29 November 1934, when both territories were colonies of France. His family was prominent in the Beninese capital of Cotonou, which later became the center of his political support. Soglo completed his secondary studies in Benin. He then received advanced degrees in law and economics from the École Nationale d’Administration and the University of Paris, and he finished his graduate work in 1963. He married Rosine Vieyra on 3 July 1958. They had two sons, Léhady (b. 18 December 1960) and Ganiuo (b. 4 November 1961).

He was the cousin of Christophe Soglo, a military officer who ruled Benin after a military coup in October 1963 until he himself was overthrown in December 1967 Soglo served as an inspector in ...

Article

Elizabeth Schmidt

president of Guinea, trade union leader, and champion of Pan-African unity, was born on 9 January 1922 in Faranah, Guinea. He attended qurʾanic school, lower-primary school, and vocational school, before continuing his studies by correspondence. Although revered as a pioneer of African nationalism, Touré tarnished his record with a postindependence regime that was notorious for its human rights violations.

In 1945, Touré helped to establish a trade union for African postal, telegraph, and telephone workers, holding the position of secretary-general. The following year, he organized the Union des Syndicats Confédérés de Guinée (USCG; Union of the Confederated Trade Unions of Guinea), which brought together all the Guinean affiliates of the French Communist Party’s Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT; General Confederation of Labor). Touré’s greatest success as a trade union leader came in 1953 when workers across the colonized regions of French West Africa went on strike to force ...