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Eliufoo, Solomon Nkya  

Emma Hunter

Tanzanian teacher and politician, was born in Machame on the slopes of Kilimanjaro in Tanganyika. His father was Solomon Nkya, one of the first African Lutheran ministers ordained by the Leipzig Evangelical Mission in Kilimanjaro. Eliufoo was educated at Makerere College in Uganda, at the time the foremost institution of tertiary education in East Africa. He was later awarded a scholarship to study for a BA in social sciences at Bethany College, Kansas, and then spent a year at Bristol University in England.

Eliufoo began his career as a teacher. After receiving his diploma in education, he taught at Makerere from 1944 to 1946. On his return to Kilimanjaro, he continued teaching and played an active role in the Lutheran Church. Kilimanjaro in the late 1940s was undergoing dramatic economic political and religious change The Chagga had enthusiastically embraced coffee planting after World War I and by the ...


Franck, António Gabriel  

Richard A. Bradshaw and Juan Fandos-Rius

writer, school inspector, politician, diplomat, and foreign minister of the Central African Republic (CAR), was born at Pointe-Noire, Middle Congo, on 27 November 1927. His father, Pedro Franck, was from Cabinda, Portuguese Angola, and his mother, Baza Souzat, was from the former Belgian Congo, but he was granted CAR citizenship on 12 January 1967. After studying at the École des Cadres for French Equatorial Africa in Brazzaville, Franck was sent to Ubangi-Shari as an administrator in 1945. On 24 October 1951 he married Marie-Josèphe Jeannot Valangadede, who bore three girls and four boys before a divorce on 19 May 1973. She was a leader of the CAR National Women’s Association and the first female member of a CAR government.

Franck was active in the Éclaireurs Boy Scouts and represented them at the Grand Congrès des Mouvements de Jeunesse de Toute l AEF Grand Congress of Youth ...


Naoroji, Dadabhai  

Sanjay Mistry

The first Asian elected to the House of Commons. Dadabhai Naoroji was born in Bombay in 1825. The son of a Parsee priest, he was educated at Elphinstone Institute School and later became a teacher.

In 1855 Naoroji was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. He became involved in politics and in 1867 helped to establish the East India Association. He was one of the first leaders of the Indian nationalist movement, who supported independence for India. He played an important role in establishing the Indian National Congress in 1865 and in 1886 was appointed President of the Indian National Congress.

Naoroji moved to England and joined the Liberal Party, and in July 1892 was successfully elected to Parliament where he represented Finsbury He therefore became the first Asian to be elected to the House of Commons Although he promised that his first duty would be to ...


Sabri, Hasan  

James Jankowski

Egyptian educator, politician, and briefly prime minister, was born into a landowning family. He was educated at the Higher Teacher’s College and the Khedivial Law School. Fluent in English and French, he was a member of Egypt’s cosmopolitan elite of the early twentieth century. Trained as an educator and lawyer, he served as headmaster of the Muhammad ʿAli School in Cairo, later taught mathematics, geography, and history at al-Azhar, and also worked as a legal adviser in the Administration of Awqaf.

Sabri began his national political career as a supporter of the Wafd Party. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1926 as a Wafdist deputy, in 1930 he separated from the Wafd by endorsing the autocratic regime of the anti Wafdist prime minister Ismaʿil Sidqi For the remainder of his political career Sabri was an independent formally unaffiliated with any of Egypt s political parties Elected the ...


Sanhuri, ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al-  

Leonard Wood

Egyptian jurist, law professor, judge, and cabinet minister, was born in Alexandria on 11 August 1895. He was also known as an educationalist, a champion of the rule of law, a proponent of national independence and Arab solidarity, a leading proponent of the idea that Islam is the paramount characteristic of Arab and Egyptian civilization, and a proponent of the notion that Islam should be a guide for organizing laws and public institutions in the Arab world. His one daughter was Nadia al-Sanhuri (1935– ). Of modest background, he attended a traditional Islamic elementary school and a state secondary school operated by an Islamic foundation in Alexandria. In 1917 he graduated first in his class at the Sultanic Law School in Cairo (which became in 1925 the Law Faculty of King Fuʾad I University the Egyptian University He completed a doctorate in juridical sciences and a second doctorate ...


Savi de Tove, Jonathan  

Jeremy Rich

Togolese politician and intellectual, was born in the southern Togolese town of Tové on 15 August 1895. His family was a prominent among Ewe-speaking communities. After receiving an education from German Protestant missionaries, he moved shortly before World War I to the German colony of Cameroon to work as a clerk for a German attorney. With the advent of war, the German governor Karl Ebermayer selected Savi de Tove to become his personal secretary. After French forces defeated most of the German colonial army, Savi de Tove joined Ebermayer in his flight to Spanish Guinea. He then worked in the German embassy in Madrid, before staying a short time in Germany itself in 1918 Once the war ended Savi de Tove returned to Togo His gift for learning languages proved perfect for his new job as a schoolteacher He became the head of schools for the Église Protestante ...


Sayyid, Ahmad Lutfi al-  

Haggai Erlich

Egyptian writer, was born in January 1872 to a landowning family in Lower Egypt. He attended a local traditional Islamic school (kuttab) and chose to go to the khedivial secondary school rather than to al-Azhar. Having read translated scholarly works, notably Darwin’s Origin of Species, he was admitted in 1889 to the Khedivial Law School, the alma mater of many of Egypt’s modern politicians and leaders. As a young student, he founded Egypt’s first law review, Majallat al-Tashriʿ (Legislative Review). He graduated in 1894, entered government service, and in 1897 began collaborating with the nationalist leader Mustafa Kamil, who had the support of Khedive ʿAbbas II. They advised him to go to Switzerland and acquire Swiss citizenship so that he would enjoy immunity as a journalist and would be able to criticize the British occupiers freely. However, in Geneva in 1897 he came under ...


Tati-Loutard, Jean-Baptiste  

Jeremy Rich

Congolese (Brazzaville) politician and poet, was born on 15 December 1938 in the town of Ngoyo near the port of Pointe-Noire in present-day Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville). He completed his primary school education there. His father died in 1939, so Jean-Baptiste and his four sisters were raised in a rural community near the Atlantic Ocean by their mother and her family. Tati-Loutard recalled how his life in the countryside had deeply influenced his poetry. He later moved to Brazzaville, then the capital of the colonial federation of French Equatorial Africa. There he attended a mission high school run by Marian Catholic missionaries, and he passed his baccalaureate examinations there. In 1961, he moved to France, where he studied at the University of Bordeaux. He received from this school an undergraduate degree in literature in 1963, another undergraduate degree in Italian in 1964 and still another ...


Valdés, José Manuel  

Joy Elizondo

The child of a washerwoman and a musician, José Manuel Valdés was born in Lima, Peru's capital city, when nearly half its population was black. Though his parents could not afford to educate him, his godparents and mother's employers stepped in, seeing to his early education at a prominent religious school. He would later become the first black writer to publish in Peru, both as a doctor and as a poet, as early as 1791.

After completing school, Valdés yearned to become a priest, but during the colonial period blacks were denied access to the priesthood by the Catholic Church, and he turned instead to medicine. He could have prospered as a romancista, a type of medical practitioner that required little training and was restricted to “external remedies.” In 1788 he took the more challenging route and pursued the title of latinista surgeon for ...