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ʿAbd al-Muʾmin  

Allen J. Fromherz

builder of the Almohad Empire and great Moroccan military leader and able administrator, led the Almohad movement for tawhid, absolute monotheistic unity, after the death of the Mahdi Ibn Tumart, the Almohad founder, in c. 1130. His full name was ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn ʿAli ibn ʿAlwi bin Yaʿla al-Kumi Abu Muhammad.

After defeating the Almoravid Empire at Marrakech, he established the administrative and military foundations of the Almohad state while securing a caliphal succession for his descendants, the Muʾminid dynasty. In a matter of decades ʿAbd al-Muʾmin and his followers transformed the Almohads from a vigorous but vulnerable ideological movement in the small Atlas Mountain town of Tinmal to one of the largest and most successful Islamic empires in North African and Andalusian history.

Effectively an outsider ʿAbd al Muʾmin s ancestry was different from the noble Masmuda ethnic groups that made up the core of the Almohad ...


Ahmose, I  

Joyce Tyldesley

Egyptian pharaoh (reigned 1550–1525 BCE), son of the Seventeenth-Dynasty king Sekenenre Taa II and his consort Ahhotep, expelled the Hyksos kings from Egypt and reunited his divided country. In honor of this achievement the historian Manetho recognized him as the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, and the first king of the New Kingdom.

The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650–1550 BCE) saw Egypt split in two. The Canaanite Hyksos dynasty controlled the north from the delta city of Avaris, while the insignificant Egyptian kings of the Sixteenth Dynasty controlled the south from Thebes. Immediately to the south of Egypt, the Nubians were hostile to the Thebans, and allied with the Hyksos.

A change of Theban royal family saw the start of the Seventeenth Dynasty and the first serious challenge to Hyksos domination King Sekenenre Taa II r c 1560 probably fell in battle his hastily mummified body displays head wounds ...


Apion, Flavius  

Giovanni R. Ruffini

Egyptian landowner and Roman imperial official, is the best attested member of a family of large landholders prominent in Egypt from the fifth to the seventh centuries. The Apionic estates were one of the dominant forces in the Oxyrhynchite nome or sub-province of Egypt during the Byzantine period. Its surviving papyrological documentation details the activities of these estates, their financial managers, their farmers, and other related figures. This material makes the Apionic estates, so-called “the noble house,” one of the best documented economic institutions during Roman rule in Egypt. By recent count, the published material from the Apionic archive includes nearly 275 texts covering more than 180 years, from 436 to 620/1. The Apionic estates are likely to have been the largest in the Oxyrhynchite nome.

Procopius a sixth century Byzantine historian describes Apion s role during the Roman Empire s war with Persia during the reign of Anastasius in ...


Balbus, Cornelius  

Duane W. Roller

Roman official in Africa and Mauretania, was a member of a distinguished family from Gades (modern Cádiz in Spain). His uncle, of the same name, had been the first consul not born a Roman citizen (40 BCE).

The younger Balbus was a loyal follower of Julius Caesar and he first appears in the historical record on 24 February 49 BCE when he visited Cicero at Formiae while carrying a message from Caesar to Rome Balbus seems regularly to have been a courier for Caesar during the Roman civil war He was wounded in the engagements around Dyrrhachion early the following year his daring diplomatic negotiations with the Pompeians at this time earned him much credit He probably continued on Caesar s staff during the latter s time in the East including the period he was in Egypt returning to Italy by 45 BCE when he visited Cicero at his villa ...


Cleomenes of Naucratis  

Stanley M. Burstein

satrap of Egypt during the reign of Alexander the Great, is a controversial figure, with scholars divided in their assessments of his reign and its significance. Some view him as a loyal servant of Alexander and others as an unprincipled opportunist who subverted Alexander’s organization of Egypt as part of a plan to monopolize the grain trade during the great famines that struck the eastern Mediterranean basin during the 320s BCE. The reason for this discrepancy of opinion is the inadequacy of the sources.

The sources for the life of Cleomenes of Naucratis are meager, being limited to a handful of brief passages in the several extant ancient biographies of Alexander, two chapters in the second book of the Ps. Aristotelian Oeconomicus describing the stratagems Cleomenes used to extract revenue from his reluctant subjects, and a passage in Ps. Demosthenes Oration 56 accusing him of being the mastermind behind ...



Donald B. Redford

viceroy of ancient Kush, was the last functioning viceroy of Kush within the framework of Egyptian imperial administration, though not the last to bear the title. The name, meaning “the Southerner,” is to be paired off with the similarly conceived Pakharu, “the Levantine,” both being derived from the two opposing poles of Egypt’s empire. The lexical reference, however, by no means implies ethnicity; and there is no reason to infer that Paynehsi was Sudanese, though he might well have been. The name appears elsewhere in the ancient Near Eastern onomasticon as the Hebrew pynhs (Phineas; I Sam. 1:3), but the circumstances under which it migrated so far afield remain obscure.

The office which Paynehsi held is as old as the New Kingdom empire in Africa It was an outgrowth of the office of commandant of one of the Egyptian fortresses in northern Nubia at the inception of southward imperial ...



Lawrence M. Berman

ancient Egyptian official, was vizier of Egypt during the reigns of Thutmose III (1479–1425 BCE) and Amenhotep II (1427–1400 BCE). A sort of prime minster and chief justice combined, the vizier (tjaty in Egyptian) was the king’s closest adviser, the highest official in the land. Rekhmira came from a family of viziers, his grandfather Aamethu and his uncle Useramen having held office before him.

Rekhmira s principal monument is his offering chapel on the west bank of Luxor ancient Thebes Cut into the rock at the bottom of a hill the chapel plan takes the shape of an inverted T consisting of a transverse hall and an inner passage The passage is unusually long nearly 25 meters 82 feet and its ceiling rises from 3 meters 10 feet at the entrance to over 8 meters 26 feet at the back following the slope of the hill resulting ...