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M. W. Daly

Turco-Egyptian soldier and administrator, served in the Sudan as governor during the 1820s–1830s and adopted policies that largely set the course for the entire colonial period. Following Muhammad ʿAli’s conquest of Sinnar and Kordofan in 1820–1821, Egypt’s African empire expanded gradually over a period of sixty years. The exploitive motives of that expansion, and failure ever to extract the quantities of gold, ivory, and slaves that comprised its principal object, were reflected in attempts to administer the territories. The appointment of ʿAli Khurshid was a watershed in this process. His long period of loyal service was marked by pragmatism, a liberal and enlightened outlook, and energetic interest in developing the country.

In 1826 following military service in Greece ʿAli Khurshid was named governor of Sinnar a much larger territory of uncertain southern and eastern borders than the future province of the same name Much of the northern Sudan ...

Article

Hassoum Ceesay

religious leader, diplomat, cabinet minister, educationist, and ardent nationalist, also known as J. C. or Reverend Faye, was born in Bathurst (present-day Banjul, Gambia) to Wolof and Serer parents. His father was a shipwright and his mother a housewife. Faye attended St. Mary’s Elementary School and the Methodist Boys High School in Banjul, where he completed his studies in 1926. He got his teachers’ certificate in 1927. From 1927 to 1942, he taught at various mission schools in Bathurst, the capital and main administrative center of the British colony of Gambia.

In 1942 Faye helped start the famous Kristikunda School in Kantora in the Upper River Division of Gambia opening the gates of education to the people living in the Gambian interior which the British ruled as a protectorate The school whose name in the local Fula language means Christ s home was a bold experiment in ...

Article

Trevor Hall

to Portugal by the African king of Biziguiche, an animist Serer kingdom now part of Senegal. Nothing is known about his family; however, most African ambassadors in Portugal were relatives of West African kings. His Portuguese name shows he had converted to Christianity and he was known as Dom Francisco, a title bestowed on him as a Portuguese nobleman. He was renowned as one of only a few West Africans who served as ambassadors in Portugal, where he lived with the same privileges as a Portuguese nobleman.

Another noted recognition of his favored position occurred 22 August 1515 when King Manuel I r 1495 1521 of Portugal gave Ambassador Dom Francisco a suit of expensive clothes The Portuguese king gave the ambassador a cape trousers a short camel skin jacket two shirts made of fine cotton and a red barrette The royal gift is the only known documentation that ...

Article

colonial governor, was born on 4 February 1866 in Rochefort-sur-Mer, France. His father, Joseph William Merlaud-Ponty, was a consular judge and communications officer in the French port of Rochefort. Merlaud-Ponty's mother was Marguerite Merlaud-Ponty (née Sonolet). He appears to have been the only child of his parents, although his father later remarried and had a daughter with his second wife. Not much is available about Merlaud-Ponty's early life. His parents were Catholic, but Merlaud-Ponty later rejected Christianity and became a Freemason. When he was dying in 1915 Merlaud Ponty rejected the sacrament of extreme unction and refused to have his secular marriage recognized by a priest When Catholic missionaries then refused to hold a religious funeral his family pleaded in vain to change the missionaries decision Merlaud Ponty who was nearly always referred to as William Ponty as an adult completed his primary and secondary education passed his ...

Article

Jeremy Rich

African American activist and an administrator in Liberia, was born in Port Antonio, Jamaica, on 1 October 1799. His father was an American businessman of German descent who had worked in Port Antonio. Russwurm’s mother was an African-descended slave about whom there are no records. Some accounts claim Russwurm was the product of rape, while others asserted that Russwurm’s mother was a house servant of his father. It is also unclear if Russwurm was immediately freed by his father or if he was a slave during his childhood.

Russwurm seems to have received a primary school education until he moved to Quebec, Canada, around 1807. By 1812 Russwurm and his father had moved from Canada to Portland Maine There Russwurm s father married a widow named Susan Blanchard Russwurm developed a very close relationship with his stepmother and she insisted that his father name him John Brown ...

Article

Born John Brown to a slave mother and a white American merchant father in Jamaica, he became John Russwurm when his stepmother demanded that his father acknowledge by name his paternity. Sent to Quebec for schooling, Russwurm was taken by his father to Portland, Maine, in 1812. He attended Hebron Academy in Hebron, Maine, and graduated in 1826 from Bowdoin College, one of the first black graduates of an American college. In his graduation speech he advocated the resettlement of American blacks to Haiti.

Moving to New York, New York, in 1827, Russwurm helped found Freedom's Journal with Samuel E(li) Cornish. It was the first black-owned and black-printed newspaper in the United States. The paper employed itinerant black abolitionists and urged an end to Southern slavery and Northern inequality. In February of 1829 he stopped publishing the paper and accepted a position ...

Article

Penelope Campbell

journalist and first nonwhite governor of Maryland in Liberia Colony, West Africa, was born in Port Antonio, Jamaica, the son of John Russwurm, a white American merchant, and an unidentified Jamaican black woman. As a boy known only as John Brown, Russwurm was sent to Canada for an education by his father. After his father's settlement in Maine and marriage in 1813 to a white New England widow with children, he entered the new family at his stepmother's insistence. John Brown thereupon assumed his father's surname and remained with his stepmother even after the senior Russwurm's death in 1815 His schooling continued at home and later at preparatory institutes such as the North Yarmouth Academy in Maine He made a short unhappy visit to Jamaica and returned to Portland Maine to begin collegiate study Thrown on his own after just one year because of his sponsor ...

Article

Diane L. Barnes

John Brown Russwurm was born in Port Antonio, Jamaica, to a white merchant, John Russwurm, and an unidentified black woman. John Brown Russwurm spent his early years in Jamaica and was sent to Canada in 1807 or 1808 to obtain a formal education. In 1813 his father remarried and brought Russwurm to Maine to join his new extended family. Russwurm remained in the care of his stepmother, Susan Blanchard, even after his father's untimely death in 1815, when he began a series of short appointments as an instructor at schools in Philadelphia, Boston, and New York.

In 1826 Russwurm earned a bachelor of arts degree from Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine. Among his classmates were Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Nathaniel Hawthorne, and the future president Franklin Pierce had graduated the year before In such illustrious company Russwurm was designated to give the graduation oration In a commencement ...

Article

William L. Andrews

Born a slave in Jamaica, John Browne Russwurm was sent by his white father to Quebec in 1807 to go to school. In his early teens Russwurm rejoined his father in Portland, Maine, where he was given an opportunity to continue his intellectual development. In 1824, Russwurm enrolled in Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, from which he graduated in 1826 with one of the first bachelor's degrees earned by an African American in the United States.

Migrating to New York, Russwurm formed a partnership with Samuel Cornish, a black Presbyterian minister, to found a newspaper. The result of their partnership was Freedom's Journal, the first African American newspaper in the United States, launched on 16 March 1827. Freedom's Journal was offered for sale in the United States, Canada, England, and Haiti. David Walker, one of the newspaper's agents, first published his powerful Appeal in Freedom ...