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William E. Ward

Horace Mann Bond was born in Nashville, Tennessee, to Jane Bond and James Bond, an educator and Methodist minister. Bond was a precocious child, attending high school at nine years old and Lincoln University (Pennsylvania), an African American liberal arts college, at age fourteen. After graduating from Lincoln in 1923, Bond attended the University of Chicago, earning a Ph.D. in education in 1936.

A number of publications in the early 1930s helped Bond establish his scholarly reputation. These included The Education of the Negro in the American Social Order (1934), in which he linked poor education among blacks to their inferior social and economic status, and his dissertation, Negro Education in Alabama: A Study of Cotton and Steel (1939), in which he argued that Reconstruction represented a positive step for blacks The latter work directly contradicted the scholarship of the ...

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Wayne J. Urban

college professor and administrator, was born in Nashville, Tennessee, the son of James Bond, a Congregationalist minister, and Jane Alice Browne, a graduate of Oberlin College and a schoolteacher. Horace Bond's paternal grandmother, Jane Arthur Bond, was a slave who raised two sons by herself. These two sons, Bond's father and his uncle, Henry, both earned college degrees and embarked on professional careers. Three of Bond's four siblings earned college degrees, and his cousins on his father's side also distinguished themselves academically. This family achievement was important to Horace Bond, because it exemplified the way in which numerous scholars of his generation were nurtured within the African American community. He published a book on the family origins of African American scholars near the end of his life, Black American Scholars: A Study of Their Beginnings (1972).

Bond was an intellectually precocious child He was ...

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Frank E. Dobson

educator and scholar. The grandson of slaves, Horace Mann Bond was born in Nashville, Tennessee, to two graduates of Oberlin College, Jane Alice Browne, a schoolteacher, and James Bond, a minister. Named after the abolitionist and educator Horace Mann, Bond was an academic prodigy, graduating from high school at the age of fourteen. He attended Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and was something of a mascot to his older classmates. Labeled the “class baby” by some, Bond proved himself a leader, becoming involved in a number of activities, including the school newspaper, debate, and a social fraternity. Bond graduated from Lincoln with honors in 1923, at the age of eighteen.

Following graduation Bond was offered a teaching post at Lincoln in preparation he took graduate courses at Pennsylvania State College While at Penn State Bond excelled academically but he encountered racism from a white professor who refused ...

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Debbie Maudlin Cottrell

educator, was born in Farmville, Virginia, the daughter of Tazewell Branch, a former slave who served in the Virginia legislature and worked as a shoemaker and tax collector, and Harriett Lacey, a domestic worker. Although she learned to read at home, Branch began her quest for formal education when she was thirteen. Because her mother did laundry for students and teachers at State College in Farmville, Branch often made trips to the school to pick up or deliver clothes; in time she herself became a maid in the college library. Exposed for the first time to a wide variety of books and knowledge, she was determined to obtain her own education. Within a few years she had earned a high school diploma from the normal school of Virginia State College, a land-grant college for black students in Petersburg, where she also took teacher education classes.

Eager to share her ...

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Philip Alexander

physicist, educator, and academic administrator, was born in Pocahontas, Virginia, the son of Harry P. Branson, a coal miner, and Gertrude Brown. In 1928, after several years at his local elementary school, Herman enrolled at Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C., one of the nation's preeminent black secondary schools. He was encouraged in this move by a young black physician, William Henry Welch, who practiced in Pocahontas and who rented lodgings from young Branson's grandmother.

At Dunbar, Branson was introduced to studies in Latin, advanced mathematics, and other disciplines to which he would not have been exposed in his local high school. After graduating as valedictorian in 1932 he enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh with a view to studying medicine partly because his great uncle had been trained as a physician there Branson completed the premedical program in two years and still found time ...

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Peter C. Murray

college president and lay Methodist Church leader, was born James Phillip Brawley in Lockhart, Texas, the son of Thomas H. Brawley and Emma Storey. Despite being born in the Jim Crow era, Brawley received a college education, graduating from Samuel Houston College in 1920. He did graduate work at the University of Chicago and Northwestern University, where he received his MA in Religious Education in 1925 and his PhD in Education in 1941.

Brawley took his first teaching position in 1922 at Rust College in Holly Springs, Mississippi, a school founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church's Freedmen's Aid Society following the Civil War. He moved from Rust College to Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1925 where he taught education and religious education Clark College was another Freedmen s Aid Society school that had traditionally emphasized the training of ministers and teachers Brawley became the college ...

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Boyd Childress

white soldier, minister, educator, and administrator. Horace Bumstead was a pivotal figure in the education of African Americans at the turn of the twentieth century. Born in Boston to well-to-do parents, Bumstead was educated at Boston Latin School and Yale, from which he graduated in 1863. He was commissioned as a major during the Civil War and commanded black troops serving in the Richmond and Petersburg campaigns in 1864 and 1865. After the war Bumstead graduated from Andover (Massachusetts) Theological Seminary in 1870, studied in Europe, married in 1872, and served a Congregationalist church in Minneapolis. In 1875 he joined his Yale classmate Edmond Asa Ware at Atlanta University to teach natural science and Latin; he was named interim president in 1886 and president in 1888.

Bumstead an advocate of industrial instruction as well as of traditional higher education for blacks ...

Article

Carroll L. Miller

Ambrose Caliver was born in Saltsville, Virginia, on February 25, 1894, the son of Ambrose and Cora (Saunders) Caliver. His education in the public schools of Virginia and of Knoxville, Tennessee, was followed by collegiate work at Knoxville College, from which he received a B.A. degree in 1915. Five years later, the University of Wisconsin awarded him an M.A. degree, and in 1930 he received a Ph.D. degree from Columbia University.

His professional experience began in 1916, when he became a high school principal in Rockwood, Tennessee, and an assistant principal of Douglass High School in El Paso, Texas. His first appointment in higher education came in 1917 at Fisk University At Fisk Caliver was asked to develop a program of training in manual arts an area in which he had a special interest In his opinion the complete education of the individual involved ...

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Lee Jr. Williams

educator, college administrator, and civil servant, was born in Saltville, Virginia, the youngest child of Ambrose Caliver Sr. Little is known about his parents, but very early in his life he and his two siblings moved to Knoxville, Tennessee, where they were raised by an aunt, Louisa Bolden. Bolden, a widowed cook who took in boarders to make ends meet, allowed Caliver to accept a job at a very young age. According to one account, the young Caliver was working in a coal mine by the time of his eighth birthday. Early employment, however, did not prevent him from attending school regularly. After receiving an education from Knoxville's public school system, he enrolled at Knoxville College, where he obtained his BA in 1915. He eventually earned an MA from the University of Wisconsin (1920) and a PhD from Columbia University (1930).

After graduating from ...

Article

Huel D. Perkins

Joseph Samuel Clark was born in Bienville Parish near Sparta, Louisiana, the son of Phillip and Jane Clark. His early schooling occurred near his birthplace, through the assistance of whites, while he maintained his share of the family responsibilities. Between 1891 and 1895, Clark studied in the preparatory department of Coleman College, Gibsland, Louisiana, working his way through school. He matriculated at Bishop College in Marshall, Texas, but received no degree. From 1896 to 1901 he attended Leland College in New Orleans, Louisiana, from which he received a B.A. degree in 1901. Additional studies resulted in an M.A. from Selma University in Alabama (1913) and honorary Ph.D. degrees from Leland College, Louisiana, (1914) and Arkansas Baptist College (1921). He did postgraduate study at Harvard University, in Massachusetts, and the University of Chicago, in Illinois.

Clark involved himself in several organizations ...

Article

Lisa E. Rivo

anthropologist, educator, and college president, was born Johnnetta Betsch in Jacksonville, Florida, the second of three children to Mary Frances Lewis, an English teacher, and John Thomas Betsch Sr., an insurance executive. Johnnetta grew up in one of Florida's most prominent African American families; her great-grandfather, Abraham Lincoln Lewis, co-founded the Afro-American Life Insurance Company, Florida's first insurance company. An ambitious and civic-minded businessman, Lewis established several black institutions, including the colored branch of the public library, the Lincoln Golf and Country Club, and the seaside resort known as American Beach, the only beach allowing blacks in north Florida. Johnnetta's childhood was shaped by competing influences: her supportive family and community, and the racist attitudes and institutions of the Jim Crow South. Educated in segregated public and private schools, Johnnetta credits the influence of her teachers and her family friend Mary McLeod Bethune with encouraging her ...

Article

Rose C. Thevenin

college president and educator, was born in Augusta, Georgia, to Madison Jordan Collier and Frances (Tyler) Collier. He attended Georgia public schools and worked with his father as a brick mason. Graduating from Ware High School in 1887, he first found work as an apprentice at the Georgia Baptist Printing Office. In 1890 Collier enrolled at Atlanta University, where he met his lifelong friend and college roommate, James Weldon Johnson. Upon graduating from Atlanta University with honors in 1894, Collier was offered a summer teaching position at the Georgia State Industrial College. Instead, he accepted a position as principal and chair of ancient languages at Florida Baptist Academy. Rooted in the Baptist tradition, Florida Baptist was founded in 1892 by the Reverend Matthew Gilbert, the Reverend J. T. Brown, and Sarah Blocker in Jacksonville, Florida. By 1896 the academy s financial and administrative ...

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Alexander J. Chenault

was born in Bedford Hills, New York, to Miss Lula F. Cook. She attended school in the suburbs of New York City and then went south for college. Mattie graduated from Virginia State College (now Virginia State University) and received her master's degree in education from Teachers College of Columbia University.

She married Wilbur Cook and had a son, Louis, and daughter, Allyson. Like many black women of her day, Cook chose to become a teacher. She worked first as a New York City Public School teacher and later as a curriculum staffer. Following the birth of her two children, she began working in early childhood education. She worked in Harlem, as the director of the Addie Mae Collins Day Care Center. The center was named after Addie Mae Collins one of the four young children killed by a terrorist bomb at the 16th Baptist Street Church ...

Article

Tom W. Dillard

Joseph Carter Corbin was born in Chillicothe, Ohio, on March 26, 1833, of free parents, William and Susan Corbin. By attending several small schools he secured a basic education, and in 1850 he entered Ohio University, of Athens, Ohio. He received his bachelor's degree in 1853 and his master's in 1856. Before receiving his graduate degree, Corbin had accepted employment with a bank in Cincinnati, Ohio. Later, he taught at a school in Louisville, Kentucky. During the Civil War (1861–1865) Corbin edited a Cincinnati newspaper, the Colored Citizen. In 1866 he married Mary Jane Ward. The couple had six children, only two of whom survived their father.

Corbin and his family moved to Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1872, where he worked as a reporter for the Republican Party newspaper, the Daily Republican Like many other African Americans of that day ...

Article

Melvin D. Kennedy

Crogman was born in Philipsburg on Saint Martin, Leeward Islands, on May 5, 1841. Little is known of his first few years except that he was never a slave. He was orphaned at twelve and shortly thereafter was befriended by B. L. Boomer, of a New England shipowning family. Boomer took young Crogman to his home in Middleboro, Massachusetts. In 1855, at the age of fourteen, Crogman began an eleven-year career at sea on one of the Boomer ships. During this period he visited many ports in Europe, India, and South America. These experiences had a profound effect on the keenly observant young man.

With Boomer's encouragement Crogman began preparations in 1866 to secure an education Two years later he entered Pierce Academy in Middleboro He completed with distinction the four year course in English French and bookkeeping in half the time normally required His ...

Article

Leslie R. James

was born at Phillipsburg, St. Maarten, in the Dutch West Indies, on 5 May 1841. He was the son of William and Charlotte Chippendale Crogman, both of whom had died by the time he was 14.

The year 1855 proved to be momentous in Crogman’s life. The young orphan was befriended by B. L. Boomer, member of a New England shipping family, who took Crogman to live at his Middleboro, Massachusetts, home where he attended a nearby district school. The same year, Crogman began an eleven-year career as a seaman on one of the Boomer ships through which he gained widespread experience and saved money to further his education. The observations he accumulated through visits to major world ports in Asia, Australia, Europe, and South America broadened his horizons and influenced him immensely.

At the end of his mercantile travels, Crogman entered Massachusetts’s Pierce Academy in 1868 He ...

Article

Charles Rosenberg

teacher and university president, was born in Ettrick, Virginia, near Petersburg, where his father was secretary of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, later renamed Virginia State University. He was the sixth child of Charles James and Carrie Green Daniel, both born of free parents in Virginia, who devoted their life to education. His older siblings were Vattel Elbert, Sadie Iola, Charles James Jr., William Andrew, and Carrie Ora. There were two younger children, Manilla Corrine and Walter Green Daniel.

Daniel's father was descended from Lucy Langston, a woman of African and Native American descent, for thirty years the common‐law wife of Ralph Quarles, a landowner who freed Langston before the birth of their children. One of those children was Daniel's great‐grandmother Maria, who married a man enslaved to her father, and received title as a wedding present; another was John Mercer Langston ...

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David Borsvold

architect, teacher. and education administrator, was born in Belvoir, Chatham County, North Carolina, one of six children of William Gaston Snipes, a white farmer, and Mary Foushee Edwards, a black homemaker and farm worker. Some uncertainty exists as to Edwards's precise year of birth, with contradictory U.S. Census records allowing for a birth date sometime between 1874 and 1879. Census records show that his parents were legally registered as living side by side on different land parcels, because interracial marriage was illegal in North Carolina during this time. Edwards's earliest education was given at home and at local schools, and he worked during the evenings as a barber and a farmhand to help support the family.

Edwards earned enough money to attend Agricultural & Mechanical College for the Colored Race (now known as North Carolina A&T State University) at Greensboro in 1896 After amassing sufficient ...

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Jerry Gershenhorn

educator, was born in Sandersville, Georgia, the son of Thomas J. Elder, an educator, and Lillian Phinizy. Thomas Elder founded and served as principal of Sandersville Industrial School (later Thomas J. Elder High and Industrial School) for fifty-three years; his wife served as his assistant. Alfonso's early education was at his father's school.

Elder earned an AB from Atlanta University in 1921, from which he graduated magna cum laude. A fellowship from the General Education Board helped him earn his MS from Teachers College at Columbia University in 1924, and he went on to graduate work at the University of Chicago in the summers of 1930 and 1931 and studied at Cambridge University in England. Elder earned an EdD from Teachers College in 1938.

Elder began his teaching career at Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina, where he taught mathematics from 1921 to 1922 ...

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Raymond Pierre Hylton

minister, author, and educator, was born near Burgess in Northumberland County, Virginia, to Robert, a fisherman, and Maggie Ellison, a homemaker. Coming from an impoverished background, he received a rudimentary education and had to work at age fourteen as a farm laborer earning seven dollars per month. His first stroke of good fortune occurred in 1906 when he entered the Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute (later Virginia State College and still later Virginia State University) in Ettrick, Virginia. Getting into Virginia Union University in Richmond was not so easy; there was initial skepticism on the part of its president, Dr. George Rice Hovey, who saw no academic promise in the young man. In 1909 Hovey reluctantly admitted Ellison to the Wayland Academy (as Virginia Union's high school program was then called), and he then went on to the collegiate undergraduate program, graduating in 1917 ...