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Michele Valerie Ronnick

newspaperman, bookkeeper, novelist and short fiction writer, was born in Sandusky, Ohio. His father, Richard, had come from Kentucky and his mother, Mary Lott Anderson, from Indiana. After attending common schools in Sandusky, he came to Detroit at age sixteen, and in June 1875 graduated from Detroit High School as a member of the school's sixteenth class. Soon after Anderson began working for the Newcomb Endicott department store, one of the most important emporia in Detroit at that time. He rose from a parcel carrier in the 1870s to become a bookkeeper in the 1880s, and according to John M. Henderson in The Christian Recorder (7 November 1895, p. 2), he held “one of the highest and most responsible places.” His wife, Lucy Bowdree Anderson (1857–1961), from Jefferson, Ohio, whom Anderson had married in 1885 was similarly employed She was a bookkeeper ...


Alonford James Robinson

George Gordon was born in Jamaica to a black slave and her wealthy white master. His father, Joseph, devoted more time to running his estate and furthering his political career than he did to his colored son. Like most wealthy whites in Jamaica during the 1820s, Joseph Gordon was both a member of Jamaica's exclusive House of Assembly and a custos in Saint Andrew's Parish—the highest administrative official in the local province.

As the illegitimate son of the slave master, George Gordon learned the importance of self-reliance at an early age, even teaching himself how to read and write. Much to his father's surprise, he showed signs of proficiency in accounting at an early age. By age ten he was a skilled bookkeeper, and around this time Joseph Gordon decided to free his son, sending him to live with his godfather, businessman James Daley, in Black River, Jamaica.

With ...


Lolita Gutiérrez Brockington

and key influence in Mexico’s struggle for independence from Spain. He was born into an impoverished family in Valladolid (today, Morelia in the state of Michoacan, Mexico) to José Manuel Morelos and Juana María Guadalupe Pavón. He was baptized 4 October 1765 as the legitimate son of Spaniards, a fact that has been a source of controversy for over two centuries, with scholars debating his genealogical heritage as Spaniard, Creole, mestizo (part Indian), or casta (racially mixed).

This latter Spanish colonial term fostered multiple connotations and uses from loose innuendo to fairly rigid categorizations to define and officially regulate people of varying degrees of mixed African Indian and European lineages depending on time place socioeconomic political and racial contexts As well the term Spaniard itself was nuanced Many clerics used it to protect their more humble parishioners in good standing from the known harsher legal and ecclesiastic restrictions reserved for ...