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Steven J. Niven

sharecropper and clubwoman, was born Cora Alice McCarroll in Greenville, Mississippi, the youngest of three children of a slave woman whose surname was Warren and an Ohio born white overseer named McCarroll In the early nineteenth century Gillam s mother and her siblings who were part Cherokee were taken from their mother s home in North Carolina and sold into slavery in Mississippi Interviewed by the Federal Writers Project in the 1930s Gillam recalled that her maternal grandmother left North Carolina and tracked her children to Greenville where she remained Gillam never met her father who died shortly before she was born His early death also denied her the opportunity of the northern education her siblings had enjoyed her brother Tom in Cincinnati and her sister at Oberlin College McCarroll had set aside funds for Cora s education but her mother s second husband a slave named Lee ...


Nancy T. Robinson

laborer and sharecropper and unwitting participant in the infamous Tuskegee syphilis experiment, was born Ernest L. Hendon in Roba, Alabama, to North and Mary Reed Hendon, sharecroppers. The family resided in rural Alabama, where Ernest Hendon spent his childhood working the family farm.

Hendon studied agriculture at the Macon County Training School. When his father died in 1933, Hendon helped his mother raise his nine siblings: Willie Harvey, Mary Lou, Johngiene, Mable, Louie, Girlie, Lydar, Willion, and North. The family was poor, enduring days of laboring under unforgiving weather conditions, tending small plots of land and picking cotton.

Like many others in his community Hendon suffered from mysterious physical ailments that often went undiagnosed and untreated With limited financial or social resources and in the midst of the oppressive and segregated South there was little opportunity for medical attention in sharecropper communities Travel to seek out a ...


Neil ten Kortenaar

sharecropper in the Transvaal, South Africa, was born in 1894 to Sekwala Maine, who came from a BaSotho family that had emigrated to the Transvaal, and his wife Motheba. Kas Maine was also known as Ramabonela Maine and Kas Teeu. Maine was raised among SeTswana-speakers. His full name, Kasianyane, was a SeTswana praise name alluding to where he was born, in the southwestern corner of the Transvaal. Teeu was a Tswana pronunciation of “dou,” the Afrikaans translation of phoka meaning “dew,” the family totem. As an adult, Maine was baptized Philip in the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Maine spent his long life working on other people’s land, growing grain and raising livestock. He also worked as a cobbler and saddle-maker, a ngaka or traditional healer and diviner, a transport rider, a stable hand, a buyer and seller of livestock, and a cook.

When researchers from the University of the Witwatersrand ...



also known as Sally Smith, was the second-to-last living African-born survivor of U.S. slavery. She was born in present-day Benin on the west coast of Africa. Redoshi was one of around 110 West African children and young people who comprised the human cargo of the schooner Clotilda, the last slave ship to reach the United States. The Clotilda docked in Mobile Bay, Alabama, in July 1860, fifty-two years after a federal law had been enacted that banned the importation of slaves to the country. Redoshi outlived all other known Clotilda survivors with the exception of Matilda McCrear, who died in January 1940. Another Clotilda survivor, Kossola/Cudjo Lewis, died in 1935. Little is known about Redoshi’s early life, although a newspaper article suggested that she was the daughter-in-law of a chief and that her father upheld the law in her community (Montgomery Advertiser, 31 ...


Thomas R. Wolejko

slave, sharecropper, and artist, was born in Benton, Alabama, on the plantation of George Hartwell Traylor, from whom Bill acquired his surname. His parents' names and occupations are not known, but they were likely slaves on the Traylor plantation. Although Traylor recalled 1854 as his date of birth (he could not read or write), the 1900 U.S. Census for Lowndes County recorded his actual birth date as two years later.

After the Civil War, nine-year-old Bill continued to live and work on the Traylor plantation, eventually becoming a sharecropper. George Hartwell Traylor died in 1881, leaving the plantation to his son, Marion. On 13 August 1891 Bill married a woman named Lorisa (some sources refer to her as Laura). At the time of the 1900 U.S. Census, Traylor had fathered nine children: Pauline (1884), George (1885), Sallie (1887 ...