[This entry comprises two articles: a general description of slavery and other forms of servitude in the Indian subcontinent, followed by a detailed discussion of these practices throughout Southeast Asia and its environs. For discussion of slavery in East Asia,see ChinaandKorea.]
James F. Warren and Utsa Patnaik
David P. Johnson
Asmara is located in a highland region of Eritrea that was settled roughly 700 years ago. It is believed to have been the site of four small, feuding villages, which, under pressure from the villages’ women inhabitants, finally made peace and united around 1515. The name Asmara comes from Arbate Asmara, which in the Tigrinya language means “the four villages of those [women] who brought harmony.” Sixteenth-century Italian sources describe Asmara as a caravan trading center.
Shortly afterward Asmara was sacked by Islamic warriors and went into decline. Few historical records even mention Asmara again until the late nineteenth century, when the Italians began their colonial conquest of the region. After occupying Aseb in 1882 and Massawa in 1885, the Italians pushed into the highlands, where they encountered resistance. However, in exchange for weapons Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II signed a treaty in 1889 acquiescing to Italian control ...
The administrative, economic, and cultural center of Mali, Bamako lies on the left bank of the Niger River in the southwestern part of the country. Little is known about Bamako before the eleventh century, when it achieved prominence as a center of Islamic scholarship in the Mali empire. After the fall of Mali in the sixteenth century, the Bambara occupied the town, which became a fishing and trading center. In 1806 Scottish explorer Mungo Park estimated Bamako’s population to be less than 6,000. By 1880 the town had fallen under the domination of the Mandinka warrior Samory Touré, whose kingdom covered an expanse of territory to the south.
In 1883 French Lieutenant Colonel Gustave Borgnis Desbordes occupied Bamako and used it as a base for military campaigns against Touré Bamako took on new importance under the French who valued the town s position on the navigable ...
The city of Bobo-Dioulasso is located in one of the greener areas of Burkina Faso, and has long benefited from the fertility of the surrounding countryside. According to the legends of the Bobo people, their ancestors migrated from present-day Mali sometime between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries
baseball player known as Willard “Home Run” Brown, was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, the son of Manuel and Allie Brown.
As a youngster, Brown sometimes worked as a batboy for the Kansas City Monarchs, the renowned Negro League baseball team that held its spring training in Shreveport. In 1934, Brown signed his first professional contract to pitch and play shortstop with the Monroe Monarchs of the Negro Southern League. Brown earned $8 per week.
After one season with Monroe, Brown joined the Kansas City Monarchs for the 1935 season. The Monarchs, one of the leading black ball clubs of the era, paid him a $250 signing bonus, a $125 per month salary, and $1 per day for meals. He soon developed into one of the team's star players. During the 1936 season Brown was selected to play in the East West All Star game an honor he ...
O. Nigel Bolland
Indigenous forms of servitude in Central America preceded the Spanish conquest, but, oppressive and widespread as they were, they should not be equated with the institution of slavery introduced by Europeans between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. As opposed to earlier slavery systems, enslavement of indigenous Indians and then of Africans by Spanish and British settlers reflected demands for labor within the culture of capitalist property rights in the developing economies of the Atlantic world. The peripheral nature of the Central American colonies in the Spanish and British empires led first to the massive export of enslaved Indians, and then to the importation of enslaved Africans into the region; the latter was relatively minor in comparison with importations to other parts of the Americas. The net result was a depopulation of Central America that contributed to the region's persistent underdevelopment.
Servitude existed during the Classic period of Maya civilization ...
James L. Watson
Prior to the communist collectivization campaigns of the 1950s, China had an exceedingly complex system of social stratification marked by regional cultural variation and a rural-urban dichotomy. Localized forms of slavery existed in many provinces, as did systems of hereditary tenancy and debt bondage.
The best-documented cases of chattel slavery were found in southern China, notably in the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian. Two closely related forms of servitude emerged in this region, one male-specific and the other restricted to women. Most of these servile dependents were status symbols, treated much like investments in imperial degrees, stately homes, and ostentatious rituals.
Servile males were referred to as ximin literally little people or minor people they were usually purchased as adolescents from poor families who had an excess of male heirs Wealthy purchasers used intermediaries older women who also served as matchmakers to negotiate the exchange thus keeping the identities ...
The examination of concubinage the ownership of females by males for sexual and reproductive purposes calls forth a radical contexualization of slavery particularly domestic slavery with kinship and gender In much of sub Saharan Africa the traditional productive systems were marked by extensive hoe cultivation of slash and burn fields while the political landscape was often characterized by a checker board pattern of states with economies based on booty and trade rather than on internally generated surplus agricultural products The remaining sociopolitical blocks were kinship domains where one s opportunities and access to resources were embedded in the corporate kin group these polities external relations were grounded in the politics of ratios of persons to land The accumulation of marital ties and dependents were the capital of this kinship domain Therefore existing inequalities such as those of age and gender were reinforced by the concentration of reproductive power in the ...
Slave populations were never truly separate from the free populations within which they existed. The number and proportion of persons in a society who lived as slaves depended on a variety of factors, some internal and some external to the enslaved population. Growth in slave populations resulted from the external processes of enslavement, forced migration, and changes in the status of individuals within societies, and from the internal process of fertility (although some of the fathers of slave children were free persons). Population decrease resulted from changes in the status of the enslaved class at large—abolition and partial abolition—or in the status of individual slaves (through manumission, coartación or maroonage from forced migration and from mortality These events and processes linked enslaved and free people in complex ways In some cases slaves were able to exercise a degree of control over the demographic events whether by acts of resistance ...
Jane Turner Censer
The concept of domestic slavery customarily included household servants rather than skilled craft and industrial workers or agricultural laborers. Existing from ancient times, domestic slavery in North America dated almost from the beginning of African bondage there in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. In the nineteenth century, U.S. slaveowners referred to domestic slavery to characterize their entire institution and to create the argument of slavery as a positive good. With this focus on domestic slavery, they compared the Southern slave-holding household to an extended family.
In many societies domestic slavery was an urban phenomena but in North America it came to be important on farms and plantations as well as in cities Domestic service involved a multitude of possible posts ladies maids and housemaids valets cooks butlers housekeepers dining room servers carriage drivers coachmen laundresses and ironers and nursemaids While gardeners dairymaids seamstresses and spinners produced goods they too ...
Richard H. Steckel
The agenda for research on many topics in studying slavery in the United States was established during the nineteenth century. The charges and countercharges of the pre–Civil War debate over slavery and abolition left a residue of ideas condemning the “peculiar institution.” Hinton Rowan Helper argued that inefficiencies inherent in slavery retarded Southern economic growth, while Frederick Law Olmsted maintained that slave labor was less productive than free labor and that investments in slaves were generally unprofitable. By the twentieth century, themes of growth retardation, inefficiency, nonviability, unprofitability, and the harshness of slave life often appeared in works on antebellum Southern history. Thus when Alfred Conrad and John Meyer in 1958 published their famous paper ushering in the new economic history, they confronted widely held views and ways of thinking about slavery and the Southern economy.
Work conducted in the decade or so following the paper by Conrad and Meyer ...
Lake Edward, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, has an area of about 2,150 square kilometers (about 830 square miles) and lies 912 meters (2,990 feet) above sea level. It is connected on the northeast with Lake George (or Lake Dweru) in Uganda, by means of the Kazinga Channel. Lake Edward is fed by the Rutshuru River, a headstream of the White Nile. The lake has only one outlet, the Semliki River, which links it with Lake Albert to the north. High escarpments run along the western shore of the lake and mountains rise on the northwestern shore. The water is brackish with mineral salts. Many fish and crocodiles live in the lake, and waterfowl abound on its shores. The Anglo-American explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley discovered the lake in 1889. The lake was formerly called Albert Edward Nyanza.
See alsoGeomorphology, African ...
Ruth Mazo Karras
Although there were many commonalities in the experiences of all slaves, there were also important lines of division among slaves. One of these divisions was gender. In any given society men and women, both enslaved and enslaving, experienced slavery differently. The experience of men and women slaves differed both for biological reasons related to their sexual and reproductive use, and for sociocultural reasons related to gender divisions of labor.
In many societies slaves have been predominantly or stereotypically female In part this is because war was an important source of slaves and men were often killed rather than captured Women captives of various social groups were part of the booty of war Elite women for example might become wives or concubines the distinction was not made in many legal kinship and linguistic systems although they never gained the status of a wife married by agreement with her male relatives In ...
Patrick Manning, James Oakes, Stanley L. Engerman, and Stephen P. Bensch
[To survey the scope of historical research on slavery in major parts of the world, this entry comprises five articles:
Medieval European and Mediterranean Slavery
Latin American and Caribbean Slavery
North American Slavery
The first is a general overview of historiography from the nineteenth century to ...
Britons had knowledge of Islam almost from its inception in the 7th century primarily because of the major Muslim incursions into Europe which brought Arabs as close to England as Poitiers in France in 732 References to the religion of the Saracens date from the Anglo Saxon period The English ...
In the hierarchical structure of Korean society the “Basic people” (ch'ŏmin), the majority of whom were slaves (nobi), constituted the bottom layer. Although slavery in Korea is documented from earliest times, its origin is uncertain. Over time, various categories of people were enslaved: prisoners of war captured during the unification wars (sixth and seventh centuries
Throughout history Korea's ruling class was a hereditary aristocracy (yangban) who dominated the two lower classes of commoners (p'yŏngmin and slaves Status ...
S. I. Martin
Capital of the United Kingdom and a historic centre of black political and cultural organization and development.
Americans invented the word lynching, but not the practice. Mob violence that might be called lynching has appeared throughout history in such diverse locations as ancient Greece, Republican Rome, Africa, China, and early modern Europe and among Native American societies in North America. Newspaper reports in the early twenty-first century have found lynchings in Africa, Iraq, Mexico, and many other countries. Lynchers act in large crowds or small bands and attack all ethnic groups. Newspapers have reported that black people sometimes joined whites in integrated lynch mobs. On other occasions, African Americans formed all-black mobs to lynch other African Americans. White Americans have lynched Mexicans and Mexican Americans in large numbers. One student of lynching in Colorado, Stephen Leonard, claims that more nonracial lynchings occurred in that state, when figured on a per capita basis, than racial lynchings in any other state.
Minas Gerais was a densely forested region sparsely inhabited by Tupi and Guarani Indians before the arrival of Europeans in the seventeenth century. At that time explorers and bandeirantes (slave raiders) moved inland from São Paulo in search of Indian slaves as well as precious stones and metals.
One way to understand how a nation lives with its past and present is by locating monuments and memorials markers and places that commemorate historic events celebrate achievements of individuals help the bereaved remember and mourn the dead give meaning to the past and locate the presence of groups who ...