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Anthony Aiello

The Gulf War began on 2 August 1990 when the military forces of Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait and defeated in less than a week the minimal resistance that Kuwait's military was able to muster. Most of the Kuwaiti royal family escaped to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government in exile and were thus able to protect a great deal of Kuwaiti wealth from the otherwise wholesale robbery almost immediately undertaken by the Iraqi conquerors.

Hussein's reasons for invading Kuwait were not new. Iraq had long held that Kuwait was its Nineteenth Province and that the kingdom was no more than a creation of the British mandate authorities following World War I to ensure a reliable source of oil from a protectorate state. Additionally, Iraq wanted Kuwait to forgive the enormous debt that Iraq had taken on during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988 forgiveness ...

Article

Donna Young

Although not the strongest or deadliest storm to have struck the United States, Hurricane Katrina was the most destructive and costly, damaging coastal communities in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and devastating more than 90,000 square miles (235,000 square kilometers) of land. Its import, however, is best measured by its contribution to the public discourse on the endemic racial and income disparities found in the early twenty-first century in New Orleans, one of the most famous cities in the United States.

Article

Around the turn of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of blacks arrived in the United States from Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Social, economic, and political factors were paramount in driving these black immigrants to American shores. Although blacks came from many regions, Jamaicans, Haitians, and Africans were the most prominent. Construction of the Panama Canal in Central America attracted black laborers from all over the Caribbean, but most came from Jamaica. Altogether, between 1904 and 1914—the years that the United States sponsored the building of the canal—as many as 90,000 Afro-Jamaicans were recruited and worked on the interoceanic passageway. Approximately 121,000 Jamaicans left Jamaica between 1902 and 1931, seeking jobs. Overall, one estimate is that between 1890 and 1930 some 350 000 blacks left the West Indies With the completion of the Panama Canal and some decrease in sugarcane production in Cuba thousands of ...

Article

The processes of industrialization and deindustrialization shaped and redefined U.S. economic, social, and demographic structures and have influenced the lives of African Americans ever since the late nineteenth century. Early in the twentieth century, industrialization contributed to a mass migration of African Americans from the South to northern cities in search of work. After World War II, growth of the industrial sector in the West fueled another movement of African Americans seeking economic opportunities. But as the industrial economy began to decline in the 1960s, tensions mounted in cities where residents tried to cope with the loss of jobs and deteriorating urban conditions. By the early twenty-first century, former industrial centers such as Gary, Indiana; Allentown, Pennsylvania; and Cleveland, Ohio, were struggling to rebuild their economies in the wake of deindustrialization—and they were not alone.

The period known as the Industrial Revolution occurred in two parts the First Industrial Revolution ...