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South African surgeon who carried out the world’s first human-to-human heart transplant, was born into an impoverished Afrikaner family at Beaufort West, South Africa, on 8 November 1922. His father, the Reverend Adam Hendrik Barnard, was a clergyman of the Dutch Reformed Church for Coloured, or mixed-race, people, and his mother was Maria Elisabeth de Swart. He was educated at Beaufort West High School before training as a doctor at the University of Cape Town’s medical school, where he graduated MB, ChB, in 1945. Having done his internship at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, he worked for a short time as a rural general practitioner in Ceres, in the western Cape, before returning to Cape Town to become senior medical officer at City Hospital and then registrar at Groote Schuur Hospital. In 1953 he gained his MD for his dissertation The Treatment of Tuberculosis Meningitis Later ...

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Lawrie Balfour

Born in the Panama Canal Zone, Kenneth Bancroft Clark grew up with his mother in Harlem, New York. His childhood heroes included poet Countee Cullen, who taught at his junior high school, and book collector Arthur Schomburg, who served as curator at the 135th Street branch of the New York Public Library. After attending integrated elementary and junior high schools, Clark graduated from New York's George Washington High School in 1931.

Clark distinguished himself as an undergraduate at Howard University in Washington, D.C., where he led demonstrations against segregation. While at Howard he met Mamie Phipps, who became his wife and closest intellectual collaborator. The Clarks then went to Columbia University in New York City to study psychology, and in 1940 Kenneth Clark became Columbia s first black recipient of a Ph D degree in psychology Clark joined the faculty of City College ...

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Percy Lavon Julian, the grandson of former slaves, was one of six children. His father, James Sumner Julian, a railway clerk, and his mother, Elizabeth Adams Julian, encouraged their children to pursue education, and each of the six achieved an M.A., Ph.D., or M.D. degree. In 1916 Percy Julian graduated at the top of his class from the private State Normal School for Negroes and entered Indiana's DePauw University. Because his prior schooling was inferior, DePauw required Julian to take high school courses alongside his full load of college credits. He also worked to support himself during this time. Nonetheless, he became a member of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society and graduated in 1920 as valedictorian.

Julian hoped to pursue a Ph.D. degree in Chemistry but while white members of his class with poorer academic records received graduate fellowships he received no offers Several universities told ...

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Willie Henderson

president of Botswana, was born in Serowe, Botswana. Mogae’s background was impeccably that of the educated and internationally trained “technocrat,” a personality schooled in internal and development economics. He was educated at Moeng College and later, in economics, at Oxford and the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex in the United Kingdom. Mogae entered into the life of the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) at the age of 53 and represented the Palapye constituency from 1994 to 1998.

Mogae developed his economic skills within Development Planning a ministry that during the formative years of Botswana s developmental state just after independence became the dominant force for economic mobilization He spent time at the World Bank and as governor of the Bank of Botswana He was permanent secretary to the president 1982 1989 When he was vice president Mogae held the post of minister for finance and development ...

Article

Luis Gonçalves

Angolan doctor, writer, and first president of independent Angola from 1975 to 1979, was born António Agostinho Neto in Kaxicane, in the county of Icolo e Bengo, near Luanda. His father was a pastor of an American mission, and his mother was a teacher. He went to school in Luanda, where he finished high school in 1944. He then went to Portugal, where he studied medicine at the prestigious University of Coimbra. It is there that he started his anticolonial activities. In 1947 he was a founding member of the movement of young Angolan intellectuals, “Let’s Discover Angola.” In the following year he received a study grant from the American Methodists, and he transferred to the University of Lisbon.

In 1950 Neto was arrested in Lisbon by the Portuguese political police PIDE Polícia de Intervenção e Defesa do Estado while he was collecting signatures for the World ...

Article

Jeremy Rich

musician, medical doctor, New Testament scholar, and philosopher, was born in Kaysersberg, Alsace, Germany, to Louis and Adèle Schweitzer on 14 January 1875. In his youth, he combined a lifelong love of music and philosophy with a critical view toward orthodox understandings of Christianity. He was a famed scholar by 1900, but his religious views ruled out becoming a minister like his father. However, at that time French Protestant missionaries in Gabon were desperate for recruits. Illnesses had decimated their personnel in Gabon. When Schweitzer sent in an application in 1905 to work as a doctor alongside the missionaries after reading a plea for other Europeans to join the Gabon mission, the Société des Mission Evangelique (SME) eventually agreed to send him after several years of discussion.

When Schweitzer arrived in the Ogooué River town of Lambaréné in 1913 this settlement had been an important colonial trade ...

Article

Stephen Wagley

South African medical researcher and Nobel Prize winner active in the United States, was born in Pretoria, Transvaal (South African Republic, later South Africa), on 30 January 1899, the son of Arnold Theiler, a veterinarian, and Emma Jegge.

Theiler studied at Rhodes University College, Grahamstown, before entering the two-year premedical program at the University of Cape Town; he graduated in 1918. He left for London in 1919 and underwent medical training at Saint Thomas’ Hospital, University of London, receiving a diploma of tropical medicine and hygiene in 1922; he was denied the MD because the university did not recognize his studies at Cape Town. He never received an academic degree.

While taking a course at the London School of Tropical Medicine, he met Oscar Teague of Harvard University, who offered him a position there. Theiler moved to the Harvard University School of Tropical Medicine in 1922 where ...