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Barauda  

Salvador Suazo

wife of Joseph Chatoyer, the leader of a guerrilla war of resistance against British occupation on the Caribbean island of St. Vincent. Chatoyer appears in the historical record under various references, including Chatouillex, Chatouilleaux, Chatawae, Shatuyé, and Satuyé. His people were known to the British as “black and yellow Caribs.” It is believed that they were descended from a mix of African-descended and indigenous people who formed the majority of the people on St. Vincent. The documentary record left by Chatoyer’s enemies suggests he was the paramount military chief and civilian leader of this community on St. Vincent for more than twenty-eight years, from just before 1768 until his death in 1795. Barauda, one of Chatoyer’s wives, is today remembered especially in Honduras, where between 2,000 and 4,000 black and yellow Caribs, now known as Garifuna, were exiled by the British in the late eighteenth century.

Barauda was one ...

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Wanda F. Fernandopulle

farmer and centenarian, was born in Pamplico, South Carolina, one of six daughters of Daisy Timmons Blaine and Ben Blaine, sharecroppers. As a child she lived on the land of Joe Law, one of the richest African Americans in the state of South Carolina. Both parents worked in the fields planting and gathering cotton, tobacco, wheat, and corn, and the family attended the local St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church. As a youth Spears attended the McKnight School, finishing ninth grade. She would recall of her schooling that biscuits and ham were the morning school breakfast, that books were read by kerosene lamps, and classes ended at noon. Spears was then picked up by her father from school in a mule and wagon to help him set tobacco, which was tied and hung and brought to the market.

Looking back on her early life Spears recalled that she rolled ...

Article

Rocío del Águila

who died during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) between Chile and the allied forces of Peru and Bolivia, was born in the town of San José de los Molinos, a district founded in 1876 and located in the southern Peruvian province of Ica. She was of African descent and later worked as a cotton and lima bean farmer. She bore one child.

From colonial times, the Ica region had become well known for its Afro-Peruvian population and the participation of this significant workforce in agriculture, particularly vineyards and cotton fields. As a result of the lack of written sources and biographical materials, a variety of accounts originated regarding her role in the military events that took place in the area of Los Molinos. Most versions derive from oral sources and local traditions, which suggest that Buendía played an important role in the critical battle of Cerrillo.

The ...

Article

Nicole S. Ribianszky

free woman of color, property holder, and slave owner, was a resident of Natchez, Mississippi. Nothing is known about her early life. Her status at the time of her birth, free or enslaved, as well as her parentage, is undetermined. Butcher lived in Natchez for at least twenty years of her life and accrued property during that time due to a relationship with a white man, John Irby. She then came close to losing it when another white man, Robert Wood, attempted to wrest it from her by exploiting her vulnerability as a free woman of color.

In 1834John Irby wrote his last will and testament which clearly named Butcher as the administrator of his estate which consisted of the White House Tavern surrounding land buildings two horses and buggy household and kitchen furniture his bank deposits and two slaves Alexander and Creasy Two years later ...

Article

J. Todd Moye

civil rights activist, was born Mae Bertha Slaughter to Isaiah (“Zeke”) Slaughter and Luvenia Noland, sharecroppers, on the Smith and Wiggins Plantation in rural Bolivar County, Mississippi. Mae Bertha and her four brothers and sisters were expected to join their parents in the cotton fields as soon as they were old enough to pick bolls at harvest time.

The Slaughter children attended all-black, separate and unequal schools during “split sessions” that were scheduled around the planting, chopping, and harvest seasons in the cotton calendar. After Zeke Slaughter left the family, nine-year-old Mae Bertha began working for wages in the cotton fields at thirty cents an hour to help support the family. When she was sixteen years old, in 1939, she married Matthew Carter. Their family, which would eventually include thirteen children, began sharecropping for themselves. From 1956 to 1965 they lived and worked on the Pemble plantation ...

Article

Fiona J. L. Handley

slave, agriculturalist, and head of a dynasty, was probably born in Natchitoches, Louisiana, near what was then the border between Spanish Texas and French Louisiana, although it is possible that she was born in Africa and came to Louisiana as a young child. Her name definitely originated in Africa, but no convincing argument has been made that traces it to one particular location. She was baptized in 1742 as the slave of Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, the founder of Natchitoches which was the first permanent settlement in Louisiana. In 1756 she was inherited by the widow of St. Denis, and then became the property of the widow's son, Pierre Antoine de St. Denis Jr., in 1758, ending up the slave of the de Soto family. Between 1761 and 1766 she had three black children—Marie Thérèze Don Manuel, Françoise, and Jean Joseph In ...

Article

Steven J. Niven

sharecropper and clubwoman, was born Cora Alice McCarroll in Greenville, Mississippi, the youngest of three children of a slave woman whose surname was Warren and an Ohio born white overseer named McCarroll In the early nineteenth century Gillam s mother and her siblings who were part Cherokee were taken from their mother s home in North Carolina and sold into slavery in Mississippi Interviewed by the Federal Writers Project in the 1930s Gillam recalled that her maternal grandmother left North Carolina and tracked her children to Greenville where she remained Gillam never met her father who died shortly before she was born His early death also denied her the opportunity of the northern education her siblings had enjoyed her brother Tom in Cincinnati and her sister at Oberlin College McCarroll had set aside funds for Cora s education but her mother s second husband a slave named Lee ...

Article

Bethany Waywell Jay

slave, plantation mistress, and refugee, was born Anta Majigeen Ndiaye in Senegal during years of intense warfare and slave raids. While there is no conclusive evidence of Jai's lineage, legends in both Florida and Senegal suggest that she was a princess in Africa who was captured and sold into slavery after her father led an unsuccessful bid for power in the Wolof states of Senegal. While little is known of Jai's life before her arrival in Spanish Florida, historian Daniel Schafer suggests that she was one of the 120 Africans who survived the nightmarish Middle Passage from Africa to Cuba on board the Sally. In 1806 Jai was purchased by Zephaniah Kingsley a slave trader and planter from Florida From Cuba Jai sailed with Kingsley to his Laurel Grove plantation near what would later become Jacksonville Florida As the nineteenth century progressed Jai s life ...

Article

Kenyatta D. Berry

a black Seminole, was born around 1857 or 1858 in Nacimiento de Los Negros, the settlement established in northern Mexico following the emigration of Indian and Black Seminoles from the United States Indian Territory in 1849. In 1849 about two hundred Seminoles and blacks left the reserve without the permission of Indian agents or government officials and headed to Mexico. Nine months later they crossed into the Rio Grande at Eagle Pass. The Mexican government settled the new immigrants into two small military colonies at Muzquiz and Nacimiento de Los Negros. At its peak in 1850 this colony provided a home for more than seven hundred Black Seminole men women and children The tribes of Black Seminoles were a mixture of Seminole Indians and African American slaves fleeing from Florida after the Seminole War This group became famous for their thorough clearing of marauders from their territory ...

Article

Philippe Girard

also known as Anta Majigeen Njaay or Anna Madgigine Jai, was an African-born slave, freedwoman, and planter who spent her adult life in North America and the Caribbean. Kingsley, originally named Anta Majigeen Njaay, came from the present-day country of Senegal on the western coast of Africa. Her exact birth date is unknown. Her ethnic background was Wolof, so she may have come from the Jolof Empire. She may have been exported through Gorée Island, a prominent slave-trading emporium near present-day Dakar, Senegal. After enduring the Middle Passage, she arrived on the Danish ship Sally in Havana, Cuba, in July 1806.

In October 1806 Kingsley was purchased by Zephaniah Kingsley Jr a Bristol born Quaker planter and merchant who had successively lived in England the United States and the Danish West Indies He was supportive of slavery an institution that underpinned his vast wealth but also progressive in ...

Article

Donald A. Ritchie

a Pentagon employee who became a celebrated witness during Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigation of Communism in the government, was born in Chester, South Carolina. One of six children of Katie and Clemon Crawford, tenant farmers, she began picking cotton at the age of five. While in her teens, she moved with her parents to Salisbury, North Carolina, where she attended but did not graduate from high school. At twenty-one she married Ernest Moss, a worker at a tobacco factory in Durham, North Carolina. They had one son.

Moss moved to Washington, D.C., in 1941, where her husband took a construction job and she ironed at a laundry. In 1943 she became a dessert cook for the Welfare and Recreation Association which assigned her to the Pentagon cafeteria As a condition of employment she joined the Washington Cafeteria Workers union a local chapter of the United Federal ...

Article

Kit Candlin

was born on either Petite Martinique or Carriacou, near Grenada, around the year 1760. She was the eldest daughter of Honoré Philip, a white French baker turned planter, and his African wife, Jeannette, who had formerly been his slave. Judith had seven brothers and sisters and was the eldest daughter. Steadily over the course of the 1760s and 1770s, Honore and his wife increased their property holdings in Petite Martinique, Grenada, and Carriacou. By the time of Honore’s death in 1779, the family owned several hundred acres spread across Grenada and its dependencies. The family also owned property in Grenada’s capital, St. George’s, and in the second town of Gouyave as well as Hillsborough, the principal settlement of Carriacou. By the time of her father’s passing, the family owned at least eighty slaves and had a fortune estimated at 400,000 livres.

This property in people and in land ...

Article

liberta (freed African) cacao farmer in the Brazilian northeast during the nineteenth century, was born into slavery around 1840, the mixed-race (parda) daughter of Efegênia, a woman enslaved on a sugar plantation in São Francisco do Conde or Santo Amaro, in the Recôncavo district of the Brazilian province of Bahia. She rose to be the matriarch of a well-established farm family in Ilhéus, a town in southern Bahia that experienced a cacao boom in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from the waning days of slavery into the post-emancipation order.

Pitombo’s mother was owned by Fortunato Pereira Gallo. Sometime after 1845, when he acquired land, Gallo brought the young girl, and presumably her mother, to Ilhéus. By 1860 the young woman was living and working with between sixty and eighty other enslaved persons on Gallo s Santo Antônio das Pedras plantation which produced timber ...

Article

Redoshi  

also known as Sally Smith, was the second-to-last living African-born survivor of U.S. slavery. She was born in present-day Benin on the west coast of Africa. Redoshi was one of around 110 West African children and young people who comprised the human cargo of the schooner Clotilda, the last slave ship to reach the United States. The Clotilda docked in Mobile Bay, Alabama, in July 1860, fifty-two years after a federal law had been enacted that banned the importation of slaves to the country. Redoshi outlived all other known Clotilda survivors with the exception of Matilda McCrear, who died in January 1940. Another Clotilda survivor, Kossola/Cudjo Lewis, died in 1935. Little is known about Redoshi’s early life, although a newspaper article suggested that she was the daughter-in-law of a chief and that her father upheld the law in her community (Montgomery Advertiser, 31 ...

Article

Marsha C. Vick

Dori Sanders, the popular storyteller and lifelong peach farmer in Filbert, South Carolina, made her literary debut with Clover (1990), a novel about a ten-year-old black farm girl whose widowed father dies only hours after marrying a white woman. Clover Hill and her stepmother, Sara Kate, build a life together in rural South Carolina while coming to terms with their grief, with Clover's extended family, and with their cultural differences. The child's perceptive and humorous first-person narrative depicts their experiences as they learn to live with and love each other.

Her Own Place (1993), Sanders's second novel, traces fifty years in the life of Mae Lee Barnes a World War II bride who raises five children and runs her own farm in South Carolina after her husband abandons the family She finds inner strength and meaning through her love of family community and the land ...