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Charles Rosenberg

is almost unknown to history, except that in 1829, he published The Ethiopian Manifesto: Issued in Defence of the Black Man's Rights in the Scale of Universal Freedom, under the nom de plume of Rednaxela, his middle name spelled backward. This was not an uncommon method of semi‐anonymous authorship at the time. In 1840, a book was published in Edinburgh, Scotland, under the name Gnimelf Rednaxela, actually, Rev. Alexander Fleming, a minister in the (Presbyterian) Church of Scotland.

Young lived on Lombardy Street at the corner of Scammel near the Five Points district of New York City Historians have speculated that he may have been a street preacher and that be may have been born free in Baltimore He may also have come to New York from the Caribbean where reference to Ethiopia and pan African nationalism were much more common at the time There is a ...