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Osire Glacier

the first female pilot in Morocco and the Maghreb, was born into a bourgeois family in Fez on 14 December 1936. Her father, Abdelwahed Chaoui, was an avant-garde journalist and an actor who wanted his daughter to have an exemplary education, including training in Arabic and French and in Moroccan and Western cultures (Morocco was at the time a French protectorate). From her childhood, she distinguished herself by her exceptional intelligence, impressing her teachers as well as the director of her school.

In addition to her success in school Chaoui demonstrated strong leadership skills When she was seven years old she organized a strike in her school to protest against the violence of the colonial authorities She made her young peers promise that they would not return to their classrooms until the French authorities liberated the students who had been arrested in a public demonstration in favor of Morocco ...


Born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, Hubert Julian, the son of Henry and Silvina (Lily) Hilaire Julian, owners of a cocoa plantation and a shoe factory, became one of the first African American pilots when he earned an aviation license at the age of nineteen. Instead of becoming a doctor as his parents hoped, Julian lived a life of international intrigue as a pilot, arms dealer, and mercenary. Sent to school in England, Julian left Europe for Canada when World War I (1914–1919) broke out. He earned a pilot's license in Canada and arrived in Harlem in the early 1920s with hopes of flying from North America to Africa.

Julian earned the name “The Black Eagle of Harlem” after a stunt in 1923 that typified his ability to parlay failures and defeats into publicity and monetary successes Flamboyant and charming Julian turned a failed parachute ...


Bonnie A. Lucero

was born in Baracoa, Guantánamo, Cuba, on 29 January 1942. He was the first person of African descent, the first Cuban citizen, and the first Latin American to travel into space.

Born into a working-class family, Tamayo was orphaned when he was only a few months old, and was subsequently adopted by Rafael Tamayo and Esperanza Méndez. He worked to put himself through school from the age of 13, working as a shoe shiner and vegetable seller, and later becoming an apprentice carpenter. As a young man, he was active in the Cuban Revolution, joining the Association of Young Rebels around 1960.

This was also the year that he began to train for what would become a future in space travel, starting with courses in technical aviation at a Cuban military institute. In 1961 just after the catastrophic US invasion of the Bay of Pigs Tamayo was ...