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Gabrielle Lynch

Kenyan spiritual and military leader (orkoiyot), was born around 1860 in Nandi. Koitalel was the youngest son of Kimnyole arap Turukat, an orkoiyot who could trace his lineage to the first unifying leader of the Nandi. Little is known of Koitalel’s maternal lineage or childhood, except that his father had over forty wives and that his family was relatively wealthy. As an adult, Koitalel also had around forty wives and lived at Kamng’etuny near Nandi Hills, where he led a prolonged resistance against British colonialism.

The position of orkoiik (pl.) refers to men with powers of divination, omen interpretation, prophecy, and medicine. These powers are inherited along clan lines, but are dependent on reputation. Prior to the mid-nineteenth century the orkoiik’s influence was limited to relatively small areas. However, in the mid-nineteenth century, a family of laibons (Maasai spiritual leaders) were welcomed and absorbed as orkoiik ...


Coptic patriarch (pope) of Alexandria, was born Nazir Gayed on 3 August 1923 in the important Coptic center of Assiyut. He was educated in various parts of Egypt and graduated from Cairo University in 1943. As an undergraduate he gained degrees in history, literature, and theology and was a student of archaeology and classical Arabic. In spite of the enormous demands of high office, he should be counted among the elite quartet of leading theologians in the Egyptian Church.

Nazir Gayed experienced a spiritual call to the monastic life and entered the Monastery of the Syrians in the Western Desert in July 1954. As Father Antonious El-Souriani, he received a further vocation to the life of a hermit and between 1954 and 1962 lived alone in a desert cave for extended periods.

On Sunday 31 October 1971 an altar ballot took place in Cairo and a small ...