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Article

Linda M. Perkins

The history of African American women’s education is interwoven with the overall histories of both black education and women’s education. The earliest histories of both of these groups were ones of exclusion, neglect, and discrimination. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the prevailing view of most of American society was that neither women nor African American men should be educated beyond what was appropriate to their prescribed—and inferior—roles in society.

Article

Exeter  

Lucy MacKeith

City with a low black population, but a good example of the historical presence of Blacks in areas outside the major port cities, an indication of how omnipresent they were in Britain from the 17th century onwards.

Parish registers provide examples such as the burial on 4 February 1631 at St Mary Major of ‘Thomas, sonne of a Blackamore’; the baptisms on 16 February 1689 at St Stephen's of ‘Mary Negro, black’, on 9 April 1735 of ‘Charles English, negro’, and on 4 December 1778 of ‘Thomas Walker, a black boy’; and the burial on 8 May 1791 of ‘Robert Hill, black, a servant at the Devon and Exeter Hospital’.

A contemporary broadsheet in November 1668 gives details of ‘200 blacks brought from the plantations of the Netherlands in America’, part of the procession led by William of Orange on his way to claim the throne in London. On 22 ...

Article

Glasgow  

Jacqueline Jenkinson

One of Britain's leading trading ports between the 17th and 20th centuries. Links between Glasgow and the black world originated through trade. In the late 17th century the merchant guilds of Glasgow added to its flourishing trade with the colonial tobacco plantations in mainland North America by forging trading connections with the West Indies. The Glasgow West India Association was founded in 1807. The Association spent many of its early years defending the slave trade interest. Glasgow was involved in the slave trade, but to a much smaller degree in comparison to the major slaving ports of Bristol, London, and Liverpool. Trade connections and the slave trade led to the creation of a permanent black presence in Glasgow by the late 18th century as black people arrived, settled, and married. One early black Glaswegian was David Cunningham lawfully born to Anthony a black labourer and ...

Article

Health  

Diane Epstein

“Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health is the most shocking and most inhuman,” said Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in Chicago on 25 March 1966. For black women, this form of injustice has ranged from the horrors of the Middle Passage to disproportionately high rates of heart disease and breast cancer death.

Article

Dale Edwyna Smith

Lincoln University (Missouri) was created to meet freed blacks’ hunger for higher education after the Civil War. Black Union soldiers of the sixty-second and sixty-fifth U.S. Colored Infantry founded Lincoln Institute in Jefferson City, Missouri, in September 1866. The institution faced a succession of obstacles, including race discrimination, financial insecurity, debate over strategies for educating the black masses and, ironically, the end of legal segregation.

Inman E. Page attended Brown University and served as a clerk with the Freedmen's Bureau but recruited to be the first black administrator to hold the title “president” at Lincoln, Page was required to act as vice principal for one year to prove he was up to the task. Born a slave in Virginia, Page served as president of Lincoln from 1880 to 1889, and from 1922 to 1923 His job required rigorous fund raising and he often called on the Lincoln ...

Article

When founded by the Presbyterian minister John Miller Dickey and his Quaker wife, Sarah Emlen Cresson, in 1854, this rural, southeastern Pennsylvania educational venture was called the Ashmun Institute. After the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, the school took the name Lincoln University. Lincoln is the oldest of the historically black colleges and universities in the United States. The founding president Dickey remained only until 1856. Among the longest-tenured of the presidents who followed him were Isaac Norton Rendall, 1865–1906; John Ballard Rendall, 1906–1924; Walter Livingston Wright, 1924–1926 and 1936–1945; Horace Mann Bond (who also graduated from Lincoln in 1923), 1945–1957; and Herman Russell Branson, 1970–1985. Ivory V. Nelson became president in 1999.

There were six young men in Lincoln's first graduating class in 1868; by 1900 there were thirty two ...

Article

Jon-Christian Suggs

Between 1880 and the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, African Americans lived through a time of increasing oppression and disenfranchisement, a time that the black sociologist Rayford Logan called “the Nadir.” Nevertheless, African American literature regained some of its antebellum vitality during this time, moving gradually away from the autobiographical narrative and toward a wider range of literary and cultural production.

Article

H.R. Costello

City in north‐western England which, by the end of the 18th century, had become one of Europe's greatest ports because of its involvement in the slave trade.

1.18th‐century settlers

2.The 1919 riots

3.Black seamen

4.Social and economic disadvantage

Article

London  

S. I. Martin

Capital of the United Kingdom and a historic centre of black political and cultural organization and development.

1.The black population in 2005

2.From Roman to Elizabethan London

3.London and the slave trade

4.Georgian and Victorian London

5.Black organizations

Article

Jean M. Borgatti

Massachusetts—predominantly white, with an African American population in 2006 of less than 7 percent—has a peculiar history of liberalism and racism. When the first federal census was enumerated in 1790, Massachusetts was the only member of the Union to record no slaves, having abolished the institution in 1788, seventy-five years earlier than the nation as a whole. Citizens both black and white were prominent in the abolitionist movement, and Massachusetts has no record of lynching.

By 1855 the state had desegregated its schools by law, though segregation—particularly noticeable in education, with consequent ramifications for human and economic development—reemerged in the early twentieth century and persisted until the mid-1970s, especially in urban areas where the African American population is concentrated. Despite the racism underlying the economic and educational problems of the black community in Boston, Massachusetts was the first state to elect an African American, Edward Brooke by ...

Article

Michael Phillips

With medical care in the antebellum South prohibitively expensive, and with slaveowners suspecting that every illness reported by a slave represented a ruse for avoiding work, the southern master class largely ignored their slaves’ health problems. As a result, African American slaves in North America usually turned to healers, herbalists, and magicians within their communities to cure sickness.

These slave doctors derived their practices almost exclusively from West and Central African traditions Such healers resorted to trances or divination to determine the cause of patients diseases While Western medicine through the mid nineteenth century consisted of dangerous if not fatal cures such as induced vomiting and bleeding by contrast African American healers relied extensively on roots leaves bark and the reproductive structures of plants for soothing natural medicines Some slave healers gained a reputation even among the white community such as a South Carolina slave named Cesar who was manumitted ...

Article

Tom Lansford

The Republican Party was formed in 1854 by Americans opposed to the expansion of slavery and was for eighty years the dominant political party among African Americans. However, the Great Depression proved to be a watershed event: blacks increasingly turned to the Democratic Party at the national level because of support for New Deal programs and in response to the purging of southern blacks from the party structure during the Herbert Hoover administration. The erosion of African American support for the Grand Old Party (GOP) continued through the twentieth century, despite commonalities between the African American community and the party on a range of issues and despite the national stature of influential black Republicans.

Article

Charlotte Williams

The smallest though arguably the most ethnically distinct of the four nations of the United Kingdom. With a population of almost 3 million, Wales has its own language (Welsh) spoken by just over 20 per cent of the population.

There is evidence to suggest that the first Africans to visit Wales did so as part of the Roman occupation of Britain. However, the earliest black settlers in Wales arrived as a result of Wales's association with the slave trade and the fashion among the aristocracy for keeping black pageboys, maids, and servants. Parish records all across Wales tell the stories of these isolated individuals, the earliest record being that of Joseph Potiphar, a black servant baptized on 30 May 1687 at St John's Church, Cardiff. Perhaps the most well known was Jac Ystumllyn (1737–68 known locally as Black Jac Brought to Wales at the age of 8 Jac ...

Article

Anja Schüler

The population of the District of Columbia is characterized by the duality of both its long-time residents and its more transient citizens, often brought there by government-related employment. This duality is also reflected in the coexistence of the “official” Washington on Capitol Hill and the National Mall and the neighborhoods that make up the local community, and also in Washington politics, which must strive for a balance of federal and local interests.