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Charles Rosenberg

film and television cameraman, the first of African descent known to have been admitted to full membership in the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, Moving Picture Technicians, and Allied Crafts union (IATSE), was born Robert Antonio Puello in Yonkers, New York. He was the son and firstborn child of Roberto Puello and Merceda Castizzo Puello, both born in Havana, Cuba.

His mother died in childbirth along with the baby when Puello was about two years old His father a deep water sailor left Puello in the care of a friend when out on a voyage when Puello was around five or six years old his father died at sea Although his father s friend was very kind to young Robert Puello the man s wife was harsh and eventually his teacher Amanda Kempt sought and was awarded custody when Puello was ten years old He attended a boarding ...

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Jace Clayton

Born Osbourne Ruddock in Kingston, Jamaica, King Tubby gained prominence in 1968 for playing his instrumental mixes accompanied by the crowd-pleasing “talk-over” deejaying of U-Roy (Ewart Beckford). The duo was known as Tubby's Hi-Fi and became highly popular in the impoverished Watertown section of Kingston where Tubby lived. U-Roy's verbal wordplay provided a perfect compliment to Tubby's increasingly experimental song versions. Using homemade and modified studio equipment, Tubby started dropping in vocal snippets, adding ghostly layers of echo and reverberation, soloing various instruments, inserting sudden silences, and employing unusual equalization and other studio effects. Crowds loved the soulful roots Reggae mutated by technical wizardry and avant-garde mixing approaches. Following Tubby's lead, many musicians and engineers began dubbing.

By 1972Dub fever had arrived. Fierce competition between sound systems kept creative pressures high, although King Tubby remained on top. In 1976 police attempted to shut down a ...