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Carlos Sandroni

and one of the founders of Escola de Samba Estação Primeira de Mangueira (literally, First Station of Mangueira Samba School), was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on 11 October 1908 to Sebastião Joaquim de Oliveira, a carpenter, and Aída Gomes de Oliveira, a housewife. Although the registrar mistakenly recorded the name “Angenor” on Cartola’s baptism certificate, the name by which he was formally called through adulthood is “Agenor.” Cartola (literally, “top hat”) is a nickname he received while still a teenager. He worked in construction, and used a small “cartola” to prevent dirtying his head with spatters of cement. He adopted the nickname, using it throughout his career as a sambista (samba performer) and musician. In fact, he was even referred to as Cartola by his friends and relatives.

Cartola only completed his studies up to the fourth grade Until the age of 11 he lived in neighborhoods of ...


Isabel Morais

Mozambican film director, actor, screenwriter, writer, and lyricist, was born on 22 August 1931 and grew up in Lourenço Marques (present-day Maputo) in the former Portuguese-speaking colony of Mozambique in eastern Africa. Rui (also spelled Ruy) Guerra’s parents were Portuguese immigrants. As a teenager he wrote film reviews, shot films, and became involved in anticolonial and proindependent circles.

At the age of nineteen Guerra left Mozambique for further education in France, where from 1952 to 1954 he studied cinematography at the Institute of High Cinematographic Studies in Paris. Between 1956 and 1957 he became assistant cameraman and director on various French films. In 1958 he emigrated to Brazil, where he directed his first feature film, Os Cafajestes (The Hustlers, 1962), which was selected for the twelfth Berlin International Film Festival. The high point of Guerra’s career came when he directed the political and antimilitarist film Os Fuzis ...